Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Freud?s view of civilization Essay -- essays research papers
Freuds view of civilization emerges from his understanding of the struggle amid physical attraction and Death. Freud expresses the existence of two contrary instincts, concupiscence and Death, via starting from the speculations on the beginning of life and biological parallels. While Eros preserves the living substance and joins it into larger units, such as societies, Death dissolves these units and brings them back to their primeval state. The decease drives appear to be regressive, striving for a return to a less differentiated, less form state of tensionlessness. In contrast, Eros (which embraces sexual and life-preserving instincts) is progressive in seeking ever more differentiated forms of organized life and even the widening of differences in it as between the organism and its surroundings. Freud explains the life as concurrent or mutually opposing action of, and therefore balance between Eros and death instincts. Beside this, civilization works with Eros in order to co mbine individuals to form families, then families to form nations and then great unity of mankind. Actually, the founding of families aroused from the lasting need of manly for genital satisfaction. As a result of this, the male wanted his sex object, the female near him, while also the female did not want to leave from her children and had to stay with the stronger male. After that, the sons discovered that a union could be stronger than a single individual by overpowering their father. Because of that, the sons imposed near restrictions to work to each other in order to preserve the new state. Therefore, there are two foundations of the communal life of the human beings the power of shaft between man and woman, and woman and her child, and the compulsion to work created by external necessity. The first one of these foundations is the result of Eros and the other is the result of the death instinct, which serves for Eros to combine individuals. However, in most cases death dist inct opposes to civilization because of the results of death instinct.Because the death instinct directs towards the external world and it occurs as an instinct of aggressiveness and destructiveness. In this way the instinct enters the service of Eros, such that the organism destroys other things instead of destroying itself. However, restriction of these instincts directed towards other things speeds up the process of destr... ...ion. However, difference between male and female is not about strength and endurance, but about the reproductive differences and the ability to nurse of female. Because of these differences, destiny of female in society was designated by the class of female in the past, but this is no longer valid and nor should it be.If we look at the probable criticisms of Gerda Lerner of about the Alphonso Lingis article, Lust, we can see the main difference between them, which is the point of view about woman. Lingis mentions about woman while he is mentioning about prostitutes in Bangkok. This means that like Freud, Lingis sees woman as sex object. Furthermore, he degrades women by saying that travesties in the stage of Calypso are women than women. He does not consider the reproductive property of women and therefore he exhibits the tendency towards men. Gerda Lerner power criticize this point of view of Lingis. Other than that, these two writers do not exhibits big differences since their point of views are different. Gerda Lerner approaches to the topic historically and deal with the subordination of women. On the other hand, Lingis mentions about the representation of self and desire.