Wednesday, July 31, 2019
A Summary: In 1970s Western North Carolina, a young man stumbles across a grove of marijuana, sees an opportunity to make some easy money, and steps into the jaws of a bear trap. He is discovered by the ruthless farmer who set the trap to protect his plants, and begins his struggle with the evils of his communityÃ¢â¬â¢s present as well as those of its history. Before long, he has moved out of his parents' home to live with a onetime schoolteacher who now lives in a trailer outside town, deals a few drugs, and studies journals from the Civil War.Their fates become entwined as the community's terrible past and corrupt present lead to a violent reckoning with the marijuana farmer and with a Civil War massacre that continues to divide an Appalachian community. Major themes: Knowledge vs. Ignorance Ã¢â¬â self knowledge is the most important part of the protagonist, Travis. Here Travis is trying to portray a tough guy, ignorant attitude when really he is a scrawny boy. Travis gains kn owledge from the books he finds in LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s trailer.He gains knowledge by Leonard teaching him in the trailer. Knowledge never leaves you. TravisÃ¢â¬â¢ goal as the protagonist in this book is to better himself and start a change in his life. Why would he want to better himself? Travis is trying to find out who he is. He starts off as a want to be tough guy who hangs with the rebels. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way of life in the North Carolina Mountains no one really gives school a chance in the fact that most of the students end up as farmers.TravisÃ¢â¬â¢ ignorance for school and life in the beginning is very high. Knowledge consumes us in the fact we are always looking for new information and trying to obtain that all knowing self. Travis finds his way not the usual way of going through grade school but successfully gaining a GED. This sets him at an accomplishment something also his father never did. Travis sees himself heading down a road of hardships, Success, and failure.But Travis will learn from the mistakes and gain knowledge of the subject and move on to better himself for the future and what ever it may hold. Characters: Travis Shelton, 17 years old, high school dropout discouraged from bettering himself by his tobacco farmer father. Leonard Shuler, a former schoolteacher, now small-time drug dealer, whose career was ended by a student. Carlton Toomey, a ruthless and wily farmer and drug dealer. Dena, once a pretty young woman, who has become a heavy drug user.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The film entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The Way HomeÃ¢â¬ is a Korean film released in 2002 directed by Lee Jung-hyang and written by Lee Jung-hyang. It was produced by Whang Woo-hyun and Whang Jae-woo and was released on November 15, 2002 by Paramount Classics. The film revolves on the story of a young boy and his grandmother who struggles to fight the differences between them. It is a great film that deals with gerontology and how the aging process affects the lives of every individual.In the film, Sang-woo's mother needs to leave him under the care of his old grandmother because she needs to find a job for them to survive. However, Sang-woo's grandmother is deaf and mute which makes the situation hard for him. Living with his grandmother is really against his will because for Sang-woo, a guardian like his grandmother who has speaking and hearing disabilities is like living in hell. He cannot accept the fact about his grandmother's situation and badly calls her a Ã¢â¬Å"retard.Ã¢â¬ Frustratio n and depression consume him because he was accustomed to the city way of life. Living in the country side is far different from his previous home where electricity and technology are part of everyday life. He ignores all his grandmother's efforts for him and continues playing with his toys that he brought along with him.On the other hand, his grandmother patiently does everything for his bratty grandson. She persistently cooks meals for him, washes his clothes, and gives the best that she can to for him. Unfortunately, Sang-woo returns her kindness with rejection of the traditional meals that she serves and prefers Kentucky Fried Chicken, Spam and cola over her meals. There was a scene in the movie where he stole his grandmother's ornamental pin to buy batteries for his video game.He was expecting to receive the wrath and punishment of his grandmother, but when he arrived home, he saw his worried grandmother who was waiting for him to come back from finding batteries. Nonetheless, he got her hairpin for nothing as it did not provide him with any batteries since the rural village did not have the right size batteries for his toy. Many scenes in the film show how ruthless Sang-woo is to his grandmother.His misbehavior comes to an end when his poor grandmother gets sick which makes him realize his mistakes. Suddenly, he is not the selfish brat he was. He assumes the responsibility of taking care of his ill grandmother. His grandmother's efforts and unconditional love for him pays off when she makes his grandson feel the true meaning of home. He received love and affection from a woman who cannot speak and hear but can show him the true meaning of life.When his mother returns to fetch him and bring him back to the city, the love and kindness of Sang-wooÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother make it hard for Sang-woo to leave her. Still, he needs to come with his mother so he taught his grandmother how to write for them to keep in touch. The Way Home is a heartwarming film that be st describes sacrificial and unconditional love from an individual who is in her later life.The study of gerontology involves the observation of people as they grow old and experience changes physically, psychologically, and socially. This film is suitable for a gerontology class because it gives students the chance to view what it is like to be old and how relationship of the old with the younger generation is affected. There are many changes during late adulthood, just like the case of Sang-woo's grandmother in the film. It does not only describe what an older adult experiences but it also shows how a person should deal with these changes.What I like most about the film is the scene where Sang-woo's grandmother got sick. This is because I was able to understand how hard it is to get old and how much care and attention are needed when a person gets old and sick. The Way Home is a film that encompasses many discoveries about every individual's life: sacrifices, changes and love.Refe rence:The Way Home (2008). The Way Home Website. Retrieved, March 7, 2008 from:http://web.archive.org/web/20040417071111/www.paramountclassics.com/wayhome/Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã story.htmlWhang, W.H., Whang, J.W. (Producer) ; Lee, J.H. (Director). (2002). The Way Home. [MotionPicture] Korea: Paramount Classics.
Monday, July 29, 2019
MLA, APA, and Chicago Writing Formats - Essay Example Also, on the APA, the reference page has the year it was published after the authors name. Lastly, the APA has a cover page (Long Island University, 2009). The MLA uses author name and page. The MLA has the page number for the references and the MLA also has no cover page. The most notable differences are the title page, the titles of the pages included (work cited/resources), and the required spacing (double vs single). I think that the APA is much easier to read and go through, but I like the citing rules for the MLA much better. That's probably because I have a hard time doing those myself though. (Long Island University, 2009). According to Long Island University (2009, pg. 1), APA is used in "psychology, education, and other social sciences;" MLA is used in "literature, arts, and humanities"; and Chicago is used "with all subjects in the "real world" by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications." I see that one requirement of MLA documentation is that the student's last name and page number is required on each page in the running header.APA documentation requires a shortened title and page number on each page in the running header. MLA does not require a formal title page.Instead, student's name, instructor's name, course title and date are typed on separate lines flush with the upper-left margin on the first page. APA requires a separate title page that has a particular format (Long Island University, 2009). On the reference citations page, MLA requires "Works Cited" to be centered at the top of the page.MLA also has quite a different format for citing references than.APA requires "References" to be centered at the top of the page.Again, APA reference citations are much different than MLA (Long Island University, 2009). According to The Chicago Manual of Style Online (2009, pg. 1): The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, the humanities style (notes and bibliography) and the author-date system. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars. The humanities style is preferred by many in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system. The more concise author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author's last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided. References Citation style for research papers. (2009). Long Island University. Retrieved June 14, 2009, from http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citation.htm Chicago-style citation quick guide. (2009). Chicago Manual of
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Consumer Protection - Essay Example The law of contract stipulates three fundamental requirements for the formation of a legally enforceable contract; namely; offer, acceptance and consideration2 (it is important to note that the contracting parties must have legal capacity, which is presumed not to be an issue in this case). Lord Wilberforce asserted rules for contract formation in the case of New Zealand Shipping Co Limited v A M Satterhwaite, the Eurymedon3 thus: Ã¢â¬Å"English law having committed itself to a rather technicalÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Doctrine of contract, in application takes a practical approachÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Into the market slots of offer, acceptance and consideration4Ã¢â¬ . The law of contract formation distinguishes between an offer and an invitation to treat, which is not an offer but an indication of willingness to negotiate a contract5. For example, in the case of Gibson v Manchester City Council,6 the words Ã¢â¬Å"may be prepared to sellÃ¢â¬ constituted an invitation to treat and not a distinct offer. Furthermore, in the case of Grainger & Son v Gough7it was held that a newspaper advert will constitute an invitation to treat and not an offer unless an advertisement is specific and conveyed the exact item of product for sale. It was also indicated that there must be an indication of intent on the part of the advertiser to sell, none of which is in contention in the current scenario and therefore the arrangements between Mr Rumsey and Tackro appear to satisfy the requirements for a binding legal contract for the supply of goods agreed on 28 February 2009. However half of the stock of glasses which Mr Rumsey took with him; have transpired to be broken. Secondly, the remainder of the stock that had agreed to be delivered on 15th March have been destroyed in a fire. With regard to the stock of glasses that was damaged, section 13 of the SGA provides that goods must comply with their contractual description however this is qualified by section 15A of the SGA which asserts that if the breach is so
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Health and safety issues - Essay Example hrough: improvement of management systems so as to reduce injuries at work, showing the board how important health and safety issues are, monitoring of health and safety issues in the organization and providing of detailed reports about their states not excluding their stray performances. In essence, World Health (1983) argues that health and safety management that is effective is fundamental to the well-being of employees, plays a vital role in ensuring that the reputation of the organization is maintained while at the same time helping in creating teams that are highly achieving. An organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ health and safety quality assurance department provides various means in which the organization can monitor its continued progress and advices the organization on legislative matters and inflicts best practices into employees (Miller, 1986). To maintain quality, the team carries out internal training to keep their staff up to date with legislative and suitable organizational practices in health and safety matters and related areas. In addition, solid systems for monitoring organizational progress are to be installed which enhance the technological sector of the company as well as the knowledge of the staff for they have to be trained effectively on how to use the systems thus moving them one step ahead of their competitors. Insurance can be obtained by the employer to cover a number of costs which the employer may have to cover as a consequence of poor health and safety procedures. Examples of such insurance are Liability insurance, vehicle insurance and building insurance. There are however a number of areas for which insurance cover cannot be obtained. What are these areas? According to HMSO (1974), hundreds of industries that operate in different areas/fields exist that have been excluded from the mandatory coverage since they are registered neither under Sections 1 nor 2 of the Workplace and Insurance Act, 1997 (South Australian, 1986). The areas not covered
History of Mathematics - Essay Example The Pythagorean idea of the world was that natural numbers were the answer to the different secrets of humans and matter. They thought that everything was made up of numbers, the reason for what anything was could only be figured out in numbers (Early Concepts of Number and Number Mysticism). For the numbers from 1 to 10, each number has a special property. The number 1 is a monad and stands for unity because it is the cause of the other numbers and in number, mysticism is the number of reason. The number 2 is called a dyad for diversity or opinion and is mystically the first female number (all the even numbers are called female in many early cultures). The number 3 is a triad and means harmony because it adds up unity (number 1) plus diversity (number 2) and is considered the first male number (all the odd numbers are male in many early cultures). Number 4 is the number for justice or the squaring of accounts (number 2 squared). Number 5 is for marriage because the number 2 (first female) plus the number 3 (first male) equals the number 5. Number 6 is for creation because the number 2 (first female) plus the number 3 (first male) plus 1 more monad equals 6. The Number 10 is for the Universe because as tetractys it is the sum of all possible dimensions in geometry.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Marketing - Essay Example Segmentation refers to the process of dividing the market based on certain variables like geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral factors. The rationale of market segmentation is the identification of a specific market which a business organization can best serve. This way, it is better positioned to create a product or service which more suitable and appropriate for a specific market as well as complement it with other components of marketing mix such as price, promotion activities, and distribution channels. For example, the number one specialty coffee shop in the world Starbucks has started its business operation eyeing not the whole market for coffee but on a specific market nicheÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"affluent, well-educated, white collars between the ages of 25 and 41.Ã¢â¬ Thus, it has focused on the provision of products which appeals to this market segment, prices them accordingly, and builds stores in urban and metropolitan areas where these people populate. Positioning is the Ã¢â¬Å"act of designing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s offering and image to occupy the mind a distinctive place in the mind of the target market (Kotler 2002, pp.308).Ã¢â¬ Positioning is the product of the different techniques employed by marketers which gives it a unique image. The end product of positioning is the unique value proposition which is delivered by the company. Amazon.com has irrefutably established a distinctive image in its market. Unlike any other shops, it takes advantage of technological advancements by being a purely online retailer. Amazon.com traditionally positions itself as a more convenient and less costly distributor of books. However, through its longer and wider selection of product offerings, it is positioning itself as an online retailer of anything that a customer needs. Lastly, differentiation refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"process of adding a set of meaningful and
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Kingdom Business - Personal Statement Example However, the pressure to make profits and to prosper makes it challenging to keep from losing faith and one can only pray for courage and strength to stay true to one's beliefs (Eldred, 2005). However, this ability has far reaching effects. According to Baitu (2006), the challenge of today's landscape should not just focus on the bottom line. Business also have a social responsibility to help alleviate the ills of society and to create opportunities. And this is not just because of altruism. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2005) says for example that companies should be part of development so that their potentials too can be nourished. Otherwise, markets will not develop and expand leaving companies themselves without a future to look forward to. According to Heinz Suter, building Kingdom Companies does not only require spiritual commitment but also a realization of the social and moral challenges in the context on one's society (Chan et al, 2003, p. 181-194). Ben Cohen who is the cofounder and former CEO of Ben and Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream knows that people will easily doubt their statement of commitment regarding the company's commitment to spirituality. He says that these doubts don't matter as much as that the company continues to show that "there's a spiritual life to businesses as there is in the lives of individuals" (as cited in Saylor, 2005). Hick (2005) says that this is in part because of the continuing religious conflicts world wide that is being echoed by each society. There has been great effort to be able to relieve these situations but Rick Marshall (2005) believes that these efforts can only be truly successful if society itself makes an effort to change. It is daily struggle to remind not ourselves by all things we do and say that it is possible to live religiously and allow other the same opportunity but it is one of the most urgent ac critical challenges we have to accomplish (Eldred, 2005). Building a Kingdom Business Richard Goosen, a professor of finance and entrepreneurship at Trinity Western University says that "money is the oxygen of a business, it's not the purpose" (Saylor, 2005). This implies that no matter how healthy the bottom line is, that is not a indication that owners or employees feel fulfilled or enriched by their work. Often we think disdainfully when we here of industry and business leaders suddenly establishing charities or even giving up their business to pursue enlighten. We feel that that it is a clich' among those experiencing midlife crises. However Eldred (2005) encourages to think about it in another way: these individuals, the brightest and greatest minds of our times just may have realized something at the point in their lives when they could already say that they have everything. They may have realized that there should be more than what they had, that the pursuit of success goes beyond the boardroom and the bottom line. The marketplace seems like such a hostile pla ce to espouse religion. Yet, if one reflects on the history on faith, it is when ministries forge in these environments are the greatest testament of missions. The third chapter of the Eldred's book God is at Work tells us that businesses must be an extension of our church life. One should in a way consider it
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Korean American-Q1 - Article Example (Park, 2010). From within the perspective of the Korean American entrepreneurship, Park outlines how various scholarships on the subject has actually highlighted the influence of culture on the self-employment tendencies of Korean Americans. Park (2012) also highlights as to how Koreans American actually avoid low paid jobs and tend to focus more on having their own small business. This has more to do with the family and cultural influence on the American-Koreans that they become actively involved in the small business ownership. (Nopper, 2009) The success of Korean Americans is also due to the innovative use of different business techniques to deliver more value to the customers. Kang suggests that uptown nails salon services offer quality services duly supported by not only emotional body services but also supplement the same through the high tech IT and other services. Further, the overall involvement of Korean American women especially in uptown nails salon services is relatively superior and thus offers an edge to Korean American entrepreneurs. (King) Despite their entrepreneurial capabilities, Korean-Americans often witnessed biasness from their customers as well as the neighboring stores. The case of liquor stores is in point wherein store owners not only faced difficult customers but they are considered as outsiders by the neighboring stores and other businesses working in the proximity. As such a clear class conflict still exists making Korean Americans victim of bias and even hatred sometimes. What is also critical to understand that despite such hostile environment, liquor stores owned by Korean Americans actually performed better owing to better communication strategies adapted. Civilized communication often proved as an important strategic tool for the store owners to actually negotiate with hostile customers as well as others. This is despite the fact that Korean Americans have not been able to assimilate into the
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Challenges Faces Holiday Inn - Essay Example As the discussion highlights toÃ improve on sales of the restaurant, management decided to change their brand name. The action was intended to change the perception of the guests. Changing the perception of the guests would improve on sales. The increase in sales will be an outcome from fooling guests that the products in this case, which are pizza, are from a different restaurant Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢. Management of the restaurant also decided on changing delivery boxes to the room service. They also changed the brochures for each guesthouse to indicate Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢ and their phone number had a different prefix and would be as Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizza.Ã In marketing, various ethical issues should be adhered in the process of business. In this case, various marketing ethics issues were violated. Firstly, the management of Holiday inn restaurant fooled their customers by temporarily changing their brand name to Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢ with the aim of increasing sales to maximize profit. The practice was contrary to marketing ethics that requires businesses to advertize their products in promoting honesty, fairness, and responsibility. In this case, management of the restaurant failed to take the responsibility of marketing to promote their sales and instead put on a fake brand name. Another ethical issue arose from the restaurant using another organizations name without their authorization. The act resulted into disrespect and violation of the marketing and business ethics. Secondly, the restaurant provided brochures with a fake name to impress their customers and at the same time boost sale sales in the room service. The management did not show their real identity to their customers in the guesthouses and faked their delivery boxes.Ã
Monday, July 22, 2019
Constitutional Recognition of Indigenous Australians Essay Introduction During the 2010 Federal election, both major political parties campaigned on indigenous affairs. Following the ALPÃ¢â¬â¢s victory, Prime Minister Gillard established an independent Expert Panel to Ã¢â¬Å"to investigate how to give effect to constitutional recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Ã¢â¬ Two schools of thought have dominated the national conversation of how this should be achieved. One view is that an amendment to the preamble of the constitution will provide safe and symbolic recognition. The alternative view is that more substantive reform is required to secure equality before the law. On January 16 2012, the Panel presented the Prime Minister their report and proposed five amendments to the Commonwealth Constitution. This paper will evaluate the five proposals and the reasons offered by the Panel. Each amendment will be analysed on its symbolic significance and potential legal ramifications. Finally this paper will conclude on how to best give Indigenous Australians recognition within the constitution. Constitutional Recognition For the panel, constitutional recognition of Indigenous Australians means removing provisions in the Constitution that contemplate racial discrimination. Whether intended or not, the five proposals address the broader issues of racial discrimination and equality before the law within the Commonwealth Constitution. Repealing section 25 In its report, the Panel indicates that 97. 5% of all submissions approve of repealing section 25. Section 25 reads: For the purposes of the last section, if by the law of any State all persons of any race are disqualified from voting at elections for the more numerous House of the Parliament of the State, then, in reckoning the number of the people of the State or of the Commonwealth, persons of that race resident in that State shall not be counted. On face value, section 25 appears racist as it contemplates States excluding voters on the grounds of race. This interpretation has been affirmed by Chief Justice Gibbs in McKinlayss case (1975). Section 25 must be read with section 24 to ascertain the real intention of the framers. Section 24 specifies that the number of lower house representatives is determined by dividing the total number of people of the Commonwealth by twice the number of senators and then dividing the population of each state by that quota. Therefore, by racially excluding voters the numerical input of the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s population is reduced; the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s federal representation decreases and discriminatory states forgo greater federal representation. Although section 25 was intended to penalise racially discriminatory states, a State was able to enact discriminatory legislation by drafting laws that did not disenfranchise all members of a racial group. For instance, New South Wales denied certain classes of indigenous people the right to vote. The panel states that this proposal is technically and legally sound. Many constitutional commentators agree but there is a small minority who have identified possible legal consequences. In 1980, Justice Dean included section 25 as a provision guaranteeing the right to vote. The right to vote is not constitutionally entrenched. Parliament has authority to determine the electoral process pursuant to section 30. It is unclear whether the High Court would find legislation that disqualified people of certain races from voting invalid because of the section 7 words directly chosen by the people and section 24. Theoretically, it may be argued that section 25 should not be removed until the right to vote is constitutionally entrenched. However, this view is highly unorthodox and section 25 should be repealed. Repealing section 51 (XXIV) Section 51(xxvi) authorises the Commonwealth to make laws with respect to Ã¢â¬Å"the people of any race for whom it is deemed necessary to make special lawsÃ¢â¬ . The Panel recommends removing section 51(xxvi) as it contemplates discrimination against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen, the Aboriginal Land Fund Commission was denied purchasing Pastoral property from the Crown. The Queensland Minister for Lands reasoned that the government did not view favourable proposals to acquire large areas of land for development by Aborigines in isolation. Koowarta argued that the Minister was in breach of sections 9 and 12 of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth). Joh Bjelke-Petersen challenged the constitutional validity of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth). The Premier argued that s51(xxvi) does not confer power to make laws which apply to all races. A majority of the High Court found that sections 9 and 12 of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 were invalid pursuant to s 51 (xxvi). The Hindmarsh Island Bridge case illustrates parliamentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to enact adversely discriminatory laws in relation to race. The case concerned whether the Hindmarsh Island Bridge Act 1997 (Cth) could remove rights which the plaintiffs enjoyed under the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1986 (Cth). The Ngarrindjeri women argued that the races power only allowed parliament to pass laws that are for the benefit of a particular race. The Commonwealth argued that there were no limits to the power. The High Court found that as the Heritage Protection Act was validly enacted under s 51(xxvi), the same head of power could support a whole or partial repeal. The High Court was divided on whether S 51(xxvi) could only be used for the advancement or benefit of a racial group. In his judgement, Justice Kirby found that section 51 (xxvi) does not extend to the enactment of laws detrimental to or discriminatory against, the people of any race (including the Aboriginal race) by reference to their race. Justices Gummow and Hayne said that there was no basis for reading s51(xxvi) as not permitting adverse discrimination. In summary, Kartinyeri v The Commonwealth did not confirm that laws enacted under section 51 (xxvi) must be beneficial. Since then, it has generally been accepted that s 51 (xxvi) gives the Commonwealth power to discriminate either in favour or against members of a particular race. The removal of S51 (xxvi) would be a significant symbolic gesture to Indigenous Australians as they are the only group to whom section 51(xxvi) laws have been enacted. Not all laws passed under s 51 (xxvi) have been adversely discriminatory. In Commonwealth v Tasmania (The Tasmanian Dam Case), sections 8 and 11 of The World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983 (Cth) were held to be constitutionally valid pursuant to s 51 (xxvi). As a result, the Franklin River Hydroelectric Dam could not be constructed in a place considered spiritually significant by Aboriginal people. A repeal of section 51 (xxvi) might not invalidate the World Heritage Properties Conservation Act. Other powers, specifically the external affairs power in s51 (xxix), would support this legislation under the principle of dual characterisation. Other beneficial legislation may not be supported under the same principle. In Western Australia v The Commonwealth, the court found The Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) constitutionally valid pursuant to section 51 (xxvi). The court did not find it necessary to consider any other heads of power. Australias endorsement of the UN Deceleration on the Rights of Indigenous People may provide scope to support the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) under the external affairs power. However, it seems reckless to gamble with legislation that establishes a framework for the protection and recognition of native title. Repealing section 51 (xxvi) will also limit the Commonwealths ability to pass new laws for the advancement of Indigenous Australians. For these reasons, the Panel proposes that the repeal of section 51 (xxvi) must be accompanied by a new head of power with respect to Indigenous Australians. Inserting section 51A The preamble to S51A is the first recommendation which actually addresses the important contributions of Indigenous Australians. Section 51A also allows the Commonwealth to makes laws with respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Similar to section 51(xxvi), the power contained within section 51A is not subject to any conditions. This is somewhat of a double edged sword. All laws currently passed under section 51 (xxvi) have only been enacted with respect to Indigenous Australians. As the power is not subject to any restriction, all legislation pursuant to section 51 (xxvi) would most likely be supported by section 51A. Alternatively, section 51A could be used to enact legislation that is adversely discriminatory. The Panel states that the preamble which acknowledges Ã¢â¬Ëthe need to secure the advancement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples will mitigate this risk. However, a preamble is only used to resolve an ambiguity within a text. The power to make laws with respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is not particularly ambiguous. The Panels predicts laws passed pursuant to s 51A would be assessed on whether they broadly benefit the group concerned. The actual word used is advancement which would be interpreted differently to benefit. Furthermore, the High Court is not always ready to embrace a value judgement such as one based benefitÃ¢â¬â¢. Credit should be given to the Panel for this proposal. The preamble to Section 51A constitutionally recognises the history, culture and contributions of Indigenous Australians. The new head of power will likely ensure that current legislation pursuant to section 51 (xxvi) will continue to operate. Section 51A also removes parliamentÃ¢â¬â¢s power to enact laws with regards to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s race. This proposal addresses the apartheid nature of our constitution. However, Section 51A is not the white knight which was hoped for. It will be the courts who decide whether this new power is ambiguous. If Section 51A is found to be ambiguous, the courts will have significant discretion in interpreting the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"advancementÃ¢â¬ . To overcome these issues, the panel has recommended that a racial non-discrimination provision (S116A) be added to the constitution. Inserting section 116A There are both policy and legal issues concerning section 116A. Firstly, Australia has a history of avoiding constitutional entrenchments of rights. The proposed anti-discrimination provision only protects racial groups. Section 116A may be viewed as privileging anti-racial discrimination over anti-sex discrimination or anti-homophobic discrimination. The first legal consideration is which groups will be protected by section 116A. Jewish people are recognized as an ethnic group but Muslims are not. It is uncertain whether Muslims would receive the same protection as Jews. Furthermore, would a person who converted to Judaism receive identical protection as a person who was born Jewish? The second legal issue is how Section 116A will affect existing state and commonwealth anti-discrimination legislation. For example, Anti-discrimination state law authorise discrimination in the employment of actors for reasons of authenticity. In addition, sections 12 and 15 of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth) permits people to discriminate when they are searching for someone to share or work with in their home. Once again, it will be for the court to decide if these provisions are constitutionally invalid. The panel has affirmed that S116A (2) will support laws enacted under s 51 (xxvi) and section 51A. Like section 51A, section 116A could be interpreted by the courts in ways that were not intended. The courts will have significant discretion in determining what Ã¢â¬Å"is for the purpose of overcoming disadvantageÃ¢â¬ . An important issue for the Indigenous community is the Northern Territory Intervention. In Wurridjal v Commonwealth, the high court upheld the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s partial repeal of the Racial Discrimination Act under the race powers. The court also upheld the Northern Territory National Emergency Response Act pursuant to section 51 (xxix). Due to the principle of dual characterisation, it is unlikely that S116A will provide an avenue for Indigenous people to contest the intervention. S116A is probably the most controversial recommendation as it concerns equality before the law. This issue is probably better dealt with by an expert panel assessing a Bill of Rights. To achieve a similar result, the panel could propose that section 51A has an accompanying provision similar to 116A(2). Insert section 127A. Section 127A is a provision which recognises Indigenous languages as the original language of Australia. A separate language provision is necessary to capture the importance of traditional languages within Indigenous culture. Section 127A also acknowledges that English is the national language of Australia. The Panel rejected a submission suggesting all Australian citizens shall have the freedom to speak, maintain and transmit the language of their choiceÃ¢â¬â¢. The Panel did not want to give rise to legal challenges regarding the right to deal with government in languages other than English. It is unclear what practical consequence would flow from s127A. Section 127A could be used to secure funding for Indigenous languages on the grounds of national heritageÃ¢â¬â¢. Nonetheless, the Panel does not intend for this provision to give rise to new legal rights. S127A is symbolically important and is an appropriate way of constitutionally recognising Indigenous Australians. Summary of analysis This analysis concludes that the five proposals put forward by the panel appropriately balance substantive reform and symbolic significance. As a result, the Panel should be congratulated. If the PanelÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was to remove overtly racist tones within the Australian Constitution then they have succeeded. If the panels objective was to definitively correct the wrongs of Kartinyeri v Commonwealth and the Northern Territory Intervention then they have failed. The amendments proposed do not sufficiently address racial discriminatory acts passed under other heads of power. Section 116A(2) has been perceived as a tasteful reformulation of the races power. Furthermore, the proposals provides the courts substantial discretion in interpreting terms such as Ã¢â¬Å"overcoming disadvantageÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"advancementÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"groupÃ¢â¬ . In essence, the most important issue does not concern symbolic change or substantive reform. It is simply a question of which proposals will gain bipartisan support. Conclusion The panels proposals could succeed at referendum. Firstly, Australians are more likely to support something substantive than purely symbolic. Secondly, this is not an issue which would be perceived as a politicians proposal. Australians are hesitant to support proposals perceived as self-serving. Thirdly, the Panel indicates that its proposals are capable of being supported by an overwhelming majority of Australians. Nonetheless, to succeed at referendum, the support from the Federal opposition government and all State governments is essential. It is very easy, and sometimes attractive, for the federal Opposition to oppose a referendum. It can be a useful way of generating a negative public reaction to the government and its agenda. Since 2010, the Coalition has fought the government on nearly every political issue. Even when the parties agree in principle, they have different ways of solving the issue. For example, both parties are for off-shore processing of illegal immigrants but disagree on where and how it should be done. Both parties are committed to recognising Indigenous Australians within the constitution. So far, the LNP has said it will consider substantive reform but has only committed to preambular recognition. The Panel not only recommends substantive reform but also addresses racial equality before the law. It is very uncertain whether the LNP will support a policy so different to their 2010 election promise. The next federal election is only 18 months away. If the referendum and election are held concurrently, there is more incentive for the Coalition to oppose the Panels recommendation. It would be disastrous for the nation if the referendum fails. The Ã¢â¬ËgapÃ¢â¬â¢ will swell and the international community will view Australia as a nation of racists. It could be argued that the Government should have appointed a bipartisan panel rather than an independent panel. A bipartisan panel may not have produced Ã¢â¬ËbetterÃ¢â¬â¢ recommendations to those of the Panel. They would, however, have generated proposals that both parties would stand behind. Bibliography * ABC Television, Ã¢â¬ËAsylum seeker stand-off intensifiesÃ¢â¬â¢, The Midday Report, 20 December 2011. http://www.abc. net. au/news/2011-12-20/bowen-seeks-bipartisan-meeting-on-offshore-processing/3739984 at 29 April 2012. * Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Ã¢â¬ËDeclaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Australian Human Rights CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢, http://www. hreoc. gov. au/social_justice/international_docs/2011_EMRIP * Agreement between the Australian Greens and the Australian Labor Party, 1 September 2010. * Attwood, Bain and Markus, Andrew, The 1967 Referendum: Race, Power and the Australian Constitution, (Aboriginal Studies Press, 2007). * Behrendt, Larissa, Ã¢â¬ËMind, body and spirit: pathways forward for reconciliationÃ¢â¬â¢ (2001) 5 Newcastle Law Review 1. * Brennan, Sean, Ã¢â¬ËConstitutional reform and its relationship to land justiceÃ¢â¬â¢ (2011) 5 Land, Rights, Laws: Issues of Native Title 2. * Castan, Melissa, Submission to Panel on Indigenous Constitutional Recognition (Monash University Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, September 2011). * Castan, Melissa, Ã¢â¬ËConstitutional deficiencies in the protection of Indigenous rights: reforming the Ã¢â¬Ëraces powerÃ¢â¬â¢. 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Ã¢â¬â¢ (2011) 7 Indigenous Law Review 25. * Watson, Nicole, Ã¢â¬ËThe Northern Territory Emergency Response Ã¢â¬â Has It Really Improved the Lives of Aboriginal Women and Children? Ã¢â¬â¢ (2011) 35 Australian Feminist Law Journal 147. * Williams, George, Ã¢â¬ËRecognising Indigenous peoples in the Australian Constitution: what the Constitution should say and how the referendum can be wonÃ¢â¬â¢ (2011) 5 Land, Rights, Laws: Issues of Native Title 1. * Winckel, Anne, Ã¢â¬ËRecognising Indigenous Peoples in the Preamble: Implications, Issues and InterpretationÃ¢â¬â¢ (2011) 7 Indigenous Law Bulletin 22. Case List * Attorney-General (Cth); Ex Rel Mckinlay v Commonwealth (1975) 135 CLR 1 * Commonwealth v Tasmania (Tasmanian Dams Case) (1983) 158 CLR 1 * Jones v Toben  FCA 1150 . * Kartinyeri v Commonwealth (1988) 195 CLR 337 * Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen (1982) 153 CLR 168 * Kruger v Commonwealth (1997) 190 CLR 1 * Leak v Commonwealth (1997) 187 CLR 579. * Miller v Wertheim  FCAFC 156 ; * Western Australia v Commonwealth (Native Title Act Case) (1995) 183 CLR 373 * Wurridjal v The Cth (2009) 237 CLR 309 Legislation List. * Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1986 (Cth) * Australian Constitution Act 1975 (Cth) * Constitution Act 1867 (Qld) * Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983 (Cth) * Hindmarsh Island Bridge Act 1997 (Cth) * Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) * Native Title (Queensland) Act 1993 (Qld) * Northern Territory National Emergency Response Act 2007 (Cth) * Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth) * Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (Nsw) [ 1 ]. Law Council of Australia, Constitutional Recognition of Indigenous Australians: Discussion Paper March 2011 part 1. 1 at 23 April 2012. [ 2 ]. Australia, Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution page 1 at 23 April 2012. [ 3 ]. Alexander Ward, At the Risk of Rights: Does True Recognition Require Substantive Reform (2011) 7 Indigenous Law Bulletin 3, 3. [ 4 ]. Ibid. [ 5 ]. Ibid. [ 6 ]. Australia, Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution page 1 at 23 April 2012. [ 7 ]. Ibid . [ 8 ]. Ibid [5. 3]. [ 9 ]. Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (Cth) s 25. [ 10 ]. B Costa, Odious and Outmoded? Race and Section 25 of the Constitution (2011) The Swinburne Institute for Social Research page 1 at 25 April 2012. [ 11 ]. Attorney-General (Cth); Ex Rel Mckinlay v Commonwealth (1975) 135 CLR 1, , . [ 12 ]. B Costa, Odious and Outmoded? Race and Section 25 of the Constitution (2011) The Swinburne Institute for Social Research page 1 at 25 April 2012. [ 13 ]. Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (Cth) s 24. [ 14 ]. Ibid. [ 15 ]. Convention Debates, Melbourne, 1898, pages 665-714. [ 16 ]. B Costa, Odious and Outmoded? Race and Section 25 of the Constitution (2011) The Swinburne Institute for Social Research page 4 at 25 April 2012. [ 17 ]. Australia, Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution page 5. 3 at 23 April 2012. [ 18 ]. B Costa, Odious and Outmoded? Race and Section 25 of the Constitution (2011) The Swinburne Institute for Social Research page 6 at 25 April 2012. [ 19 ]. Ibid . [ 20 ]. Ibid . [ 21 ]. Ibid . [ 22 ]. Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (Cth) s 51 (xxvi). [ 23 ]. Australia, Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution page 5. 4 at 23 April 2012. [ 24 ]. Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen (1982) 153 CLR 168. [ 25 ]. Ibid [169-170]. [ 26 ]. Ibid. [ 27 ]. Ibid. [ 28 ]. Ibid . [ 29 ]. Kartinyeri v Commonwealth (the Hindmarsh Island Bridge case) (1998) 195 CLR 337. [ 30 ]. Hindmarsh Island Bridge Act 1997 (Cth). [ 31 ]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1986 (Cth). [ 32 ]. Ibid. [ 33 ]. Ibid [416-7]. [ 34 ]. Ibid [379-381]. [ 35 ]. Thomson Reuters Legal Online, Halsburys Laws of Australia (at 15 January 1998) 19 Government, 19. 5 Federal Constitutional System [19. 5 Ã¢â¬â 157. 1] [ 36 ]. Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983 (Cth). [ 37 ]. (1983) 158 CLR 1. [ 38 ]. Ibid. [ 39 ]. Ibid [5 Ã¢â¬â 8]. [ 40 ]. Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) [ 41 ]. Western Australia v The Commonwealth (1995) 183 CLR 373. [ 42 ]. Ibid.
Best Practices & Most effective strategies for Curriculum Design in K-12 education in America Essay Example for Free
Best Practices Most effective strategies for Curriculum Design in K-12 education in America Essay Curriculum is a plan for learning that includes targeting a student population, conducting a needs assessment, and writing a mission statement. It includes developing goals, objectives, content, teaching strategies, and assessment tools. Alignment is critical in curriculum development from purpose and philosophy, to goals and objectives, to content and activities, and to assessment and evaluation. Working through a process of asking and answering who, what, where, why, when, how questions is essential in designing and developing curriculum. A curriculum serves several purposes that include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explicit statements of ideology underlying the instruction (why are you teaching it, and why is the teaching the way it is? Ã¢â¬ ¢ General long-term aims (what are students intended to gain from following the course? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Specific, testable, short-term objectives (what will they be able to do as a result of following the course? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Resources to be used (what is needed to deliver the course? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ The delivery methods to be employed (how is it to be taught? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Timing of the units and their sequencing (when is it to be taught and in what order? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assessment procedures and the balance of assessments to be made (how, when and why will it be examined? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ A methodology for evaluating how well the course has been received (how will instructor acquire feedback from the students about the course? ). K-12 education is defined as educational technology in United States, Canada and other countries for publicly supported grades prior to college. The K stands for kindergarten and 12 denotes 1st to 12th grade before the 13th that is the first year of college. Curricular Theory and Theorists The word curriculum has its origins in the running/chariot tracks of Greece. It was, literally, a course. In Latin curriculum was a racing chariot; currere was to run. A useful starting point for us here might be the definition offered by John Kerr and taken up by Vic Kelly in his standard work on the subject. Kerr defines curriculum as, All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school.  This gives us some basis to move on. For the moment all we need to do is highlight two of the key features: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Learning is planned and guided. We have to specify in advance what we are seeking to achieve and how we are to go about it. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The definition refers to schooling. We should recognize that our current appreciation of curriculum theory and practice emerged in the school and in relation to other schooling ideas such as subject and lesson. In what follows we are going to look at four ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students product. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Curriculum as process. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Curriculum as praxis. Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted Many people still equate a curriculum with a syllabus. Syllabus, naturally, originates from the Greek. Basically it means a concise statement or table of the heads of a discourse, the contents of a treatise, the subjects of a series of lectures. In the form that many of us will have been familiar with it is connected with courses leading to examinations. For example, when teachers talk of the syllabus associated with, say, the Cambridge GSCE exam. What we can see in such documents is a series of headings with some additional notes which set out the areas that may be examined. A syllabus will not generally indicate the relative importance of its topics or the order in which they are to be studied. Those who compile a syllabus tend to follow the traditional textbook approach of an order of contents, or a pattern prescribed by a logical approach to the subject, or the shape of a university course in which they may have participated. Thus, an approach to curriculum theory and practice which focuses on syllabus is only really concerned with content. Curriculum is a body of knowledge-content and/or subjects. Education in this sense is the process by which these are transmitted or delivered to students by the most effective methods that can be devised . Where people still equate curriculum with a syllabus they are likely to limit their planning to a consideration of the content or the body of knowledge that they wish to transmit. It is also because this view of curriculum has been adopted that many teachers in primary schools, have regarded issues of curriculum as of no concern to them, since they have not regarded their task as being to transmit bodies of knowledge in this manner. Curriculum as product The dominant modes of describing and managing education are today couched in the productive form. Education is most often seen as a technical exercise. Objectives are set, a plan drawn up, and then applied, and the outcomes (products) measured. In the late 1980s and the 1990s many of the debates about the National Curriculum for schools did not so much concern how the curriculum was thought about as to what its objectives and content might be. It is the work of two American writers Franklin Bobbitt, 1928 and Ralph W. Tyler, 1949 that dominate theory and practice within this tradition. In The Curriculum Bobbitt writes as follows: The central theory is simple. Human life, however varied, consists in the performance of specific activities. Education that prepares for life is one that prepares definitely and adequately for these specific activities. However numerous and diverse they may be for any social class they can be discovered. This requires only that one go out into the world of affairs and discover the particulars of which their affairs consist. These will show the abilities, attitudes, habits, appreciations and forms of knowledge that men need. These will be the objectives of the curriculum. They will be numerous, definite and particularized. The curriculum will then be that series of experiences which children and youth must have by way of obtaining those objectives. This way of thinking about curriculum theory and practice was heavily influenced by the development of management thinking and practice. The rise of scientific management is often associated with the name of its main advocate F. W. Taylor. Basically what he proposed was greater division of labor with jobs being simplified; an extension of managerial control over all elements of the workplace; and cost accounting based on systematic time-and-motion study. All three elements were involved in this conception of curriculum theory and practice. For example, one of the attractions of this approach to curriculum theory was that it involved detailed attention to what people needed to know in order to work, live their lives and so on. A familiar, and more restricted, example of this approach can be found in many training programs, where particular tasks or jobs have been analyzed and broken down into their component elements and lists of competencies drawn up. In other words, the curriculum was not to be the result of armchair speculation but the product of systematic study. Bobbitts work and theory met with mixed responses. As it stands it is a technical exercise. However, it wasnt criticisms such as this which initially limited the impact of such curriculum theory in the late 1920s and 1930s. Rather, the growing influence of progressive, child-centred approaches shifted the ground to more romantic notions of education. Bobbitts long lists of objectives and his emphasis on order and structure hardly sat comfortably with such forms. The Progressive movement lost much of its momentum in the late 1940s in the United States and from that period the work of Ralph W. Tyler, in particular, has made a lasting impression on curriculum theory and practice. He shared Bobbitts emphasis on rationality and relative simplicity. His theory was based on four fundamental questions: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experience can be provided that is likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? Like Bobbitt he also placed an emphasis on the formulation of behavioural objectives. Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students pattern of behaviour, it becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students. We can see how these concerns translate into an ordered procedure and is very similar to the technical or productive thinking steps set out below. 1. Diagnosis of need 2. Formulation of objectives 3. Selection of content 4. Organization of content 5. Selection of learning experiences 6. Organization of learning experiences There are a number of issues with this approach to curriculum theory and practice. The first is that the plan or programme assumes great importance. For example, we might look at a more recent definition of curriculum as: Ã¢â¬ËA program of activities by teachers designed so that pupils will attain so far as possible certain educational and other schooling ends or objectives . The problem here is that such programmes inevitably exist prior to and outside the learning experiences. This takes much away from learners. They can end up with little or no voice. They are told what they must learn and how they will do it. The success or failure of both the program and the individual learners is judged on the basis of whether pre-specified changes occur in the behaviour and person of the learner. If the plan is tightly adhered to, there can only be limited opportunity for educators to make use of the interactions that occur. It also can deskill educators in another way. For example, a number of curriculum programs, particularly in the USA, have attempted to make the student experience teacher proof. The logic of this approach is for the curriculum to be designed outside of the classroom or school. Educators then apply programs and are judged by the products of their actions. It turns educators into technicians. Second, there are questions around the nature of objectives. This model is hot on measurability. It implies that behaviour can be objectively, mechanistically measured. There are obvious dangers here: there always has to be some uncertainty about what is being measured. We only have to reflect on questions of success in our work. It is often very difficult to judge what the impact of particular experiences has been. Sometimes it is years after the event that we come to appreciate something of what has happened. For example, most informal educators who have been around a few years will have had the experience of an ex-participant telling them in great detail about how some forgotten event brought about some fundamental change. Yet there is something more. In order to measure, things have to be broken down into smaller and smaller units. The result, as many of you will have experienced, can be long lists of often trivial skills or competencies. This can lead to a focus in this approach to curriculum theory and practice on the parts rather than the whole; on the trivial, rather than the significant. It can lead to an approach to education and assessment which resembles a shopping list. When all the items are ticked, the person has passed the course or has learnt something. The role of overall judgment is somehow sidelined. Third, there is a real problem when we come to examine what educators actually do in the classroom, for example. Much of the research concerning teacher thinking and classroom interaction, and curriculum innovation has pointed to the lack of impact on actual pedagogic practice of objectives. One way of viewing this is that teachers simply get it wrong as they do not work with objectives. The difficulties that educators experience with objectives in the classroom may point to something inherently wrong with the approach, that it is not grounded in the study of educational exchanges. It is a model of curriculum theory and practice largely imported from technological and industrial settings. Fourth, there is the problem of unanticipated results. The focus on pre-specified goals may lead both educators and learners to overlook learning that is occurring as a result of their interactions, but which is not listed as an objective. The apparent simplicity and rationality of this approach to curriculum theory and practice, and the way in which it mimics industrial management have been powerful factors in its success. A further appeal has been the ability of academics to use the model to attack teachers. There is a tendency, recurrent enough to suggest that it may be endemic in the approach, for academics in education to use the objectives model as a stick with which to beat teachers. What are your objectives? is more often asked in a tone of challenge than one of interested and helpful inquiry. The demand for objectives is a demand for justification rather than a description of ends. It is not about curriculum design, but rather an expression of irritation in the problems of accountability in education.  Curriculum as process We have seen that the curriculum as product model is heavily dependent on the setting of behavioural objectives. The curriculum, essentially, is a set of documents for implementation. Another way of looking at curriculum theory and practice is via process. In this sense curriculum is not a physical thing, but rather the interaction of teachers, students and knowledge. In other words, curriculum is what actually happens in the classroom and what people do to prepare and evaluate. What we have in this model is a number of elements in constant interaction. It is an active process and links with the practical form of reasoning set out by Aristotle, which is as follows: Teachers enter particular schooling and situations with an ability to think critically in action and with an understanding of their role and the expectations others have of them, and a proposal for action which sets out essential principles and features of the educational encounter. Guided by these, they encourage conversations between, and with, people in the situation out of which may become thinking and action. They continually evaluate the process and what they can see of outcomes. Curriculum as praxis Curriculum as praxis is, in many respects, a development of the process model. While the process model is driven by general principles and places an emphasis on judgment and meaning making, it does not make explicit statements about the interests it serves. It may, for example, be used in such a way that does not make continual reference to collective human well-being and to the emancipation of the human spirit. The praxis model of curriculum theory and practice brings these to the centre of the process and makes an explicit commitment to emancipation. Thus action is not simply informed, it is also committed. It is praxis. Critical pedagogy goes beyond situating the learning experience within the experience of the learner: it is a process which takes the experiences of both the learner and the teacher and, through dialogue and negotiation, recognizes them both as problematic. It allows, indeed encourages, students and teachers together to confront the real problems of their existence and relationships. When students confront the real problems of their existence they will soon also be faced with their own oppression. The process model is modified to fit the praxis model, which is as follows: Teachers enter particular schooling and situations with a personal, but shared idea of the good and a commitment to human emancipation, an ability to think critically in action, an understanding of their role and the expectations others have of them, and a proposal for action which sets out essential principles and features of the educational encounter. Guided by these, they encourage conversations between, and with, people in the situation out of which may become informed and committed action. They continually evaluate the process and what they can see of outcomes. Proposed Curriculum Design: A curriculum prepared for the targeted students of K-12 education must be tailored to meet their needs for a fast and productive mental growth. Therefore a curriculum for k-12 education must be prepared so that it supports all children and young people from 3 Ã¢â¬â 18 to develop as successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens and effective contributors, ready to play a full part in society now and in the future. As part of the review process we need to develop clear guidance which sets out expectations of what children and young people should learn and also promotes flexibility and space so that teachers can use their professional judgment creatively to meet childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Therefore, before beginning to design a curriculum for k-12 education, one must capture the essence of what young people will learn over the course of their schooling and express this through the experience and outcome statements. Curriculum Designing Guidelines Purpose The construction of experiences and outcomes that effectively provide progression in each curriculum area and convey the values, principles and purposes of A Curriculum for Excellence is central to the success of the program. In particular, it is important that you reflect relevant aspects of the four capacities in your work. If we can get this right these outcomes and experiences will have a significant, positive, impact on classroom practice and hence on the learning experience of all children and young people. It is an exciting prospect. Starting point In phase 1 each early review group should be asked to simplify and prioritise the curriculum (from age 3 to 15 in the first instance) retaining what currently works well and making changes where these were justified by research evidence. The output from phase 1 of the review process and the rationale for your curriculum area, research and other national and international comparators are your starting points. Your work will be based on the relevant parts of the Curriculum Frameworks: for Children 3 Ã¢â¬â 5, 5 Ã¢â¬â 14 guidelines, Standard Grade, and National Qualifications. It is important that experience and outcome statements you write at each Curriculum for Excellence level provide appropriate cognitive demand. The framework for outcomes The experiences and outcomes will sit within a framework of advice to teachers. Curriculum Area The eight curriculum areas are: Expressive Arts, Health and Wellbeing, Languages, Maths, Religious and Moral Education, Science, Social Studies and Technologies. Rationale The rationale provides an overview of the curriculum area states its main purposes and describes its contribution to the values and purposes. Subsets of the curriculum area Each curriculum area is subdivided either into fields of learning Ã¢â¬â or Ã¢â¬ËsubjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ (e. g. Expressive Arts into art, drama, dance and music) or into aspects of learning in that area (e. g. Languages into listening and talking, reading and writing) Lines of development These identify learning tracks in each subset of the curriculum area. They are expressed in different ways in each area of the curriculum. For example within expressive arts they identify the skills to be developed: creating, presenting and evaluating in art, drama, dance and music; within science they describe broad areas of knowledge and understanding to be developed; biodiversity, being human and cells in Our Living World. Experiences and outcomes Within each line of development, experiences and outcomes describe the expected progression in learning for children and young people. Essential outcomes Essential outcomes are a small number of high level statements, derived from the main purposes described in the rationale, that encapsulate what learning in that curriculum area provides for all children and young people. Taken together, the essential outcomes are intended to sum up the expectations for the broad general education of all young people. The focus of your work will be writing the experiences and outcomes for your curriculum area. It is likely that there will be interplay between what you produce and the Ã¢â¬Ëessential outcomesÃ¢â¬â¢ , which are the ones helping to shape and refine the other in an iterative manner. Outcomes should be written in the clearest possible English. Where possible these should be accessible to children and young people, but not at the expense of clarity. It is also important to try to write lively and engaging experiences and outcomes. Best Practices of Writing the Curriculum Ultimately the intention is to produce streamlined guidance for the entire curriculum in a single document. We also intend to make the outcomes available in electronic format to allow curriculum leaders and teachers to identify and blend outcomes from both within and beyond curriculum areas. Several stages will be required to achieve this. Curriculum for Excellence Achievement framework In the first stage of work the aim is to produce experience and outcome statements up to Third level with provisional work done to Fourth level. Both Third and Fourth level have particular significance. Third level is important because it defines the point at which a young person has experienced a broad general education and has satisfied the essential outcomes in all curriculum areas. At this point there may be opportunities to choose what she or he wishes to study, typically with a greater degree of speciality and in greater depth to Fourth level and possibly beyond. For some pupils, their choices will result in continued, lateral progression, in curriculum areas at Third level. Fourth level is important because it will enable transition into the formal qualifications system. Experiences and outcomes at this level will tend to be more specific than those for earlier levels. The outcomes and experiences written during this stage will be subject to refinement through the engagement process. Writing an excellent outcome Always remember that the experiences and outcomes should have an impact on classroom practice and learning. The outcomes should not be written in the form of assessment criteria, nor should they constrain learning. Every outcome should therefore be tested against the following criteria: 1. It should express learning that is clear to the teacher, and where possible the young person. This will promote the application of formative assessment strategies. 2. It should indicate the purpose of the outcome and/or direct the selection of learning activities for all children and young people. 3. It should allow evaluation of the outcome. In other words, it should be clear from the outcome what evidence might be observed to demonstrate progress by the child or young person. Also bear in mind that there is no intention to produce an elaborated curriculum. Outcomes should therefore offer and support opportunities for enrichment and development for those young people with additional support needs who may not progress beyond the first levels. As you complete blocks of work a further test is to consider the extent to which you have prioritised and simplified existing guidance and to ask yourself if any changes are robust and justifiable. As a general rule outcomes should begin with the Ã¢â¬ËI canÃ¢â¬â¢ stem. Experiences describe purposeful and worthwhile tasks, activities or events that contribute to motivation, personal development and learning. As a general rule they should be signalled using the Ã¢â¬ËI haveÃ¢â¬â¢ stem. The following additional general parameters will help you get started. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Simplification and prioritisation should result in time and space being made to operate the seven principles of curriculum design. For example, teachers should have time for greater depth of study, to introduce topics or ideas in a relevant context or to respond to local events or circumstances and to ensure progression. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assume your outcomes can be taught within the time allocations typically applied in schools at present.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Cartoon Entertainment Is Not Only For Kid Media Essay Nowadays, there are many entertaining programs developed for kid, these programs are more and more plentiful and they increase incessantly. One of the most popular programs is cartoon. Now, cartoon is not only for kid, it is also an entertaining program for adults. How long do you/ your kids use for watching cartoon? Which are age groups who usually watch cartoon? What is the purpose of their watching cartoon? These researches, which give some detail summarizing the whole report, may help anyone who wants to understand more clearly and care about Cartoon. Introduction Cartoon or animated movie is a form which uses optical illusion and movements of consecutive performing of many still images. The first cartoon in the world was Fantasmagorie which was made by a France artist, Emile Cohl in 1908. Produced in over 100 years ago, this film had no sound and was called silent film. With white stroke on a black board in class table the film about the adventure of the cartoon character called Stick figure. All are represented by dots and simple strokes. Traditional animated cartoon, developed in early 1900s, was practiced by Ubbe Ert Iwwerks, Walt Disney and others. They had used 24 different pictures for each second of their animated movie. The first complete cartoon was produced in 1991. However, cartoon was not recognized by worldwide audience until 1914 via category animation film Gertie the Dinosaur by producer John Bray. Early 30s of twentieth century, manufactures began to enhance color elements and sound in animation. The most representative works are maximum use of such elements as Snow white and the Seven Dwarfs (1973), this is the long animated the first episode in the history of the genre. Frequently, people think cartoons are made by many simple drawing and just put them on order. In most peoples opinion, cartoons are several pictures describing consecutive actions. In fact, the second thought is true. However, nowadays, in order to bring out a perfect product; producers have to make a lot of specific things. Base on http://www.hdvietnam.com/diendan/37-che-tac-phim-hd/66866-quy-trinh-lam-phim-hoat-hinh.html (user Chip, 2008), we have a brief proceed about how to make a short cartoon movie. A cartoon movie, even just 30 or 80 minutes also needs a number of producers and amount of time to make it completely. Everything starts from the idea, as soon as the script has been done; a group of artists begin to develop many storyboards which include brief conversations and the sound in the movie. After director checks the storyboard out, they move on to sound recording. Many people whose voice suit with characters in the movie will be invited to dub. The sound will be dealt with and provided on the number of frame on the movie and written called paper the dope sheet. Next to this step, the layout will be drawn first; artist just only use the pencil for perspective, arrangement and movements of characters. Then, they add more colors and theme on movie and move it to computer in order to join the sc enes with the sounds. Finally, they check it out again to fix the problems and public. The cartoon making takes a lot of time. It usually takes them, on average, 6 to 12 months or maybe more just only to make a half hour cartoon. It is truly a difficult job. Furthermore, on the link http://vnexpress.net/gl/doi-song/chia-se/2009/10/3ba14231/, base on doctor PhÃ ¡Ã ºÃ ¡m NgÃ ¡Ã »Ã c Thanh in Kids Hospital, watching cartoon had many bad effects on children. According to her, even in cartoon, children are affected by violence across the screen kicking, killing each other with frequency of about 20 times an hour. Children, who watch violence images on television many hours a week there, will have many violence actions as hitting, punching, biting his parents, sibling and friends. For advertising of food and alcohol, the young tend to think the food in advertisements is good for health and not interested in the importance of vegetable in their diet. In addition, kids who watch more cartoon are less physically active, easy weight gain, which leading to obesity while in young ages, children need to play creatively to social development. Finally, cartoon or television also influences childrens eyesight if they focus on looking at the scree n for prolonged periods. Method I. Participants: The researcher chose 100 people from many areas in Hanoi who have different jobs and ages. The participants in this study are: 20 students are working in Banking Academy, Hanoi, Vietnam. 30 kids from Katies living place. (Mage = 15.6 years, age range: 8 18 years) 20 younger parents who have kids (Mage = 27.3 years, age range: 23 35 years) 30 adults live around Hoan Kiem Lake (Mage = 36,3 from 19 45 years) In those participants, researcher chose 3 people to ask them a lot of special question. All of them have kid on school-age: NguyÃ ¡Ã »Ã¢â¬ ¦n NgÃ ¡Ã »Ã c Hoa, 29 years old, lives in Hanoi and she is a business woman. She has two children, one kid is 7 years old and the other one is 10 years old. NguyÃ ¡Ã »Ã¢â¬ ¦n PhÃ ºc LÃ ¢m, 32 years old, lives in Hanoi and works as a director in a Japan Company. He has a son whom is 9 years old. LÃ ² A PÃ ¡o, 27 years old and lives in Hanoi. He works as sale manager on a company. He has a son on school age. I choose participants of different age living in different area to be objective and results of comprehensive. I focus on those who are kids by age group most influenced by this art. As young adults age is less influenced. II. Procedure First, the researcher collected the information from some source such as: newspaper, books, Internet and so on. Then, basing on it, the researcher made some relevant questions for adults and people who care about Cartoon. Thirdly, the researcher met them in persons and interviewed to get more information. With the adults, the researcher asked them filling questionnaire or ask and the researcher filled the question list for children. After that, some quotation were cited, analyzed and compared. Finally, the researcher showed the conclusion from studies. Results Previously, there are many reports have mentioned and researches about the using of people about media, including cartoon, and its affect to the peoples life. Figure 1: Media Multitasking Among 5- to 8- Year-Olds (%) I have found a study which research about children in America with multimedia and built it up to a bar chart. Base on the above chart, we can easily see that there is up to 23 percent kids of age from 5 to 8 years old use media several hours per day. Besides that, the study also point out 16 percent of 0- to 8- year-old use more than one media most or some of the time; among 5- to 8-year-old, 23 percent do. In addition, among the 79 percent of 5- to 8-year-olds who have homework, 21 percent usually or sometime have the TV on while they do it Stevie HosslerÃ (August, 2011) said that typically, children begin watching cartoon on television at an early age of six month, and by age two or three, children become enthusiastic audience. This has become a problem because there are too many children are watching TV too much and these programs (even cartoon) become violent and addictive. Children watch cartoon too much on TV are more likely to have mental problems and feelings, along with brain and eyes injuries and unexpectedly the risk of a physical problem increase. Furthermore, because of seeing violent on TV, children become less sensitive to hurting and affliction of others, they are not afraid of violent and easily become aggressive or use harmful action towards other people. Besides above results that I found in references, I also had a survey with 100 people have different ages (from 6 to over 45 years old and come from many different areas around Hanoi) on the question: Do you watch cartoon movie? and if yes: How old are you?. Then, I build on one pie chart that shows us Which are age groups who usually watch cartoon? Figure 2: Which are age groups who usually watch cartoon? ( % ) Nowadays, cartoon movies are very popular and improve very quickly. Variety of cartoon movies were built for every age. From this chart we can see easily that at the period of age from 28 35, the percentage of people watch cartoon is 6 percent, makes up the smallest part of the pie chart. In that period of age, people usually too busy with their job and have no time to watching television, relaxing, even playing with their kids. A few of them spend the weekend to do those things, however it is just a short time. While, children on school age are the ones who watch cartoon the most. On the research, all kids watch cartoon every days; they watch it at home, at school and spend at least 3 hours per day for looking at television screen. It is really a huge number. Moreover, we had a survey of a number of people who watch cartoon to find answers of the question: What kind of cartoon movie do you watch? Figure 3: What kind of cartoon movie do you watch? The chart above shows us that violent cartoon is the kind that be watched the most at the age of 19 to 27, it is 5 percent. Besides that, the proportion of watching funny or education cartoon is a significant little than the violent one. The highest percentage of watching funny movie is just only 40 percent at the age of 28 to 35 years old. It the working-age and they use main animated movie for relaxing and entertaining. Whereas, the number of kids within the age of 6 to 10 years old watching funny movie is very low; there is just 20 percent of them watch this kind of cartoon and as half as this proportion on violent film. Most children will watch a movie comes across on television which tells stories about fighting between superman and monster or human and aliens. These cartoons will attract the kid by many attractive pictures and dynamic techniques. However, there are many violent fighting scene can effect directly on child brain. Discussion When I did the research about cartoon with many people, there are two opposite opinions. Nobody can deny that cartoons have many surface advantages. First, watching cartoon movie is a useful entertainment activity for children and adults. A child can lie down quietly on sofa and just watch his favorite cartoon, instead of running around or screaming when his parents are working so they can play with their kid. Moreover, cartoons also have important effect on adults, especially the couples whose young children. After several busy working hours, parents can sit next to their kids and watch cartoon together. Thank to this film, they can relax completely and have a chance to stay their children nearer. These things are better than plunging into job immediately after arriving home and do not spend any time talking to the children. NguyÃ ¡Ã »Ã¢â¬ ¦n NgÃ ¡Ã »Ã c Hoa (29 years old, Hanoi) said that: When my daughter was younger than she is now, after working time, I arrived home and just focused on housework such as cleaning, washing, cooking and so on. Because of my job, I did not have enough time to play with my child and usually took her play by herself or with her friends next door. Recently, I realize that when I watching cartoons with my daughter, the conversation between me and my kid become closer than ever. Now, I understand my honey more clearly, know what she wants, what she thinks, and how she grows day by day. As a mother, I really feel very happy and so glad to understand her. J.Wolffe, an animation researcher wrote in an article on April, 23, 2012 that the animation is where kids learn how the hero is really, when she was a child, she could learn to pronounce quickly difficult words which make people confusing when listen to them. Smart will help you get almost everything and there is always anybody is more intelligent than you, animation teaches all that. Why? Because, via animation kids can learn and understand quickly when they are entertaining, which is one of the reason why children have difficulty learning from teachers, the pressure makes them liable to remember vocabulary as fast as sing a song in animation. At home, I always buy CD or open a cartoon channel to watch many funny movies with my son. In the past, my brood was very active; he always run around house, from a room to another room and never sits quietly on a place within thirty minutes. However, since he has watched cartoon, he can sit on chair with concentration to television without saying any word. Furthermore, he also often draws the characters on cartoon scene, training every day and improves it day by day. I am so proud of my little boy said NguyÃ ¡Ã »Ã¢â¬ ¦n PhÃ ºc LÃ ¢m (32 years old, Hanoi). Not only does cartoon bring happy time for parents with their children, but it also is a special teacher for kids, who is closest and most friendly with younger generation. Nowadays, there are many cartoon series which including educative programs. It teaches children arithmetic, drawing by using beautiful and attractive shape and funny situation. Besides that, via a lot of movies, kids can learn about some knowledge around them, improving their grasp and learning. Some programs teach 7- and 8- years old a little of a foreign language, such as English an international language. Learning English from young is an important step for language ability for children in the future. In addition, animated films have a lot of funny and eye-catching picture which attract the kids so these points will help develop and enrich the childrens imagination. A vast number of people think that watching cartoon is totally good and it does not have any bad influence on children and adults. In fact that opinion is not absolute true. Cartoon is a kind of movie which causes addiction easily. More and more kids have trend toward sitting on room and they prefer watching cartoon to going out and playing with other kids, doing exercise or other activities. Sitting and watching animated movies several hours like that can make the kids sink into the world of many imaginary characters, they can use that time to do more useful work, instead of wasting it only on watching cartoon. Cartoon is just a program used to relax and improve kids brain; it cannot replace healthy activities which will train childrens body. Moreover, base on an unpublished study perform by Mary Fenway, watching cartoon on several hours cause autism for 46% of children who usually do this work and they will find difficult on opening relationship. This is really an unexpected disadvantage of watching cartoon, which nobody is looking forward to. Besides that, nowadays, appeared many animated companies just care about their profit and are insensitive to their products affection for younger generation. LÃ ² A PÃ ¡o (27 years old, Hanoi) said that: I usually let my son watching cartoon himself because he is very interested in this funny programs. However, recently, I feel that my son got mad more often than he had been, lazy to eat and sometime he beat his classmate in kindergarten. A few day later, I found that a cartoon channel that my child usually watch for, project an animated movie whose a lot of violent scene. Immediately, I delete that channel because it made much bad influent on my kid. Instead, I let my son watch a lot of educative cartoon and care more about what he watches. In modern life, many parents are busy with their jobs and do not notice what their child watch. Bad animated movies bring a lot of evil effect on young people, teach them things and make them have the wrong view about the lives around. Furthermore, a few animated movies which are made for adults, has unsuitable content with kids and effect on the childrens souls if they watch those movies accidentally.Ã On the latest study, American of Child Psychiatry and adolescents (AACAP) point out that television does not affect the behavior of children as young an age. FromÃ their research, the AACAP countries, Kids watch shows in which violence is very realistic, frequently repeated or unpunished, are more likely to imitate what they see. They also said that childrens parents need to keep a close eye on what their kids watch, and explain for children that the cartoon character was shot was not hurt, but really would be seriously injuries or die in real life. They should tell their kids that violence is not the best ways to deal with a conflict. In conclusion, because of a lot of cartoons affections on childrens life and character in future, choosing a best cartoon for kids is an important work with who are mothers and fathers. In addition, there is an alarm for the industry for kids; they need block the commercial cartoon, give back the innocent, pure and suitable animated movies for the future generation of the world.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Each year many people first become aware of sexual harassment when they are harassed in the workplace. Today in the United States there still seems to be a need for general information about sexual harassment. Many people are unaware of exactly what sexual harassment is, how it affects its victims, where it happens, and what to do if it happens to them. There are many laws that protect people from sexual harassment and provide them with information about what to do if you should ever be in this situation (Wyatt, 2000). Harassment of a sexual nature, typically in the workplace or other setting where raising objections or refusing may have negative consequences is considered sexual harassment. In American employment law, it is any unwelcome sexual advance on the job that creates intimidation in the workplace. Sexual harassment is considered a form of illegal discrimination. Unfortunately, the definition of sexual harassment is very controversial; it is truly based on what ones personal opinion is. Typical sexual harassment behavior usually includes unwanted touching of a co-worker, lewd comments, talk about gender superiority, or sexual jokes (Sandler, 1997). Sexual harassment is any sexual advance or conduct on the job that is unwanted. It can happen to men and women, gay or straight. Unsolicited sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other conduct of a sexual nature directed toward an individual are considered to be sexual harassment. Occasional comments like "Hey, baby" or "honey" will not likely be considered sexual harassment without more offensive or more frequent episodes. However, if the offensive behavior is extremely severe, such as a sexual assault, a single incident could be enough to be considered sexual harassment (The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2005). Sexual harassment affects victims in many ways, often not noticeable to others. Victims feel powerless to stop the situation. They often fear retaliation, for example with grades or recommendations. They fear that their complaints will not be taken seriously, or that they will be perceived as causing trouble. Victims often blame themselves, and fear that others will also blame them, even though it is the harassing person's authority or influence that has been misused. Victims often have physical symptoms of stress, such as stomach problems or headaches. They can also become depressed, moody, or irritable without knowing why. Victims often suffer lower self-esteem, self-respect and self-confidence.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Style I often wonder what style is, and how does a person know when they are in possession of it. Style is one of the many things that seem to change form day to day for me, and I'm never sure where it might lead me. I think we all have our own style, but how can we get away from having the same style that other people have? When I look through magazines, all I read is the same thing over and over, in a little different style, or voice. Then, when I look out the window, I see people dressed in about the same fashions. These fashions may change from group to group, and age to age, but the idea of having ones own style seems to be hard to find. I think the only place where a person can have their own style is the home. But then we could fall victim to the Crate & Barrel style. For those who don't know, Crate & Barrel is a furniture store for people who like to copy the unique style of one another. So where this leads me is to the idea that the only real place where people can create their ow n style is in themselves. I think the best place to see a persons individual style is in school. I remember when I was in school, I would dress similar to the people that I hung around with. But the person that I was and am today is nothing like the friends that I had and still have. I think when a person is able to find out how they are, and what they want a personal style emerges, and the best thing about this is that we can alter it and change things as we see fit. You're probably wondering, "How do I know when I need to change my style?". The only thing that I can say is this, you'll know when it is time to change. I know that when I get a certain feeling inside, I know that I have to change something so that I can feel better about ... ...les, and we shouldn't be afraid to show them off to the people around us. How cares if we dress a little different. We are expressing our own individualities through the clothes we wear, and if other people don't like it, tuff noogies. Whoever, I think the only time we should be concerned about what others are wearing is when their style is a threat to our lives, or the life of the person wearing the garment. This concept could also be used in the other topics I wrote about in this essay. Unless there is harm to the individual, or individuals around them, we as a society shouldn't be to concerned about the styles of others. Usually these wild styles are a fads, and people will grow out of them. I know that I was able to grow out of many wild styles that my parents weren't sure if I would come out of or not. So if I was able to overcome these styles, others will to.