Friday, May 31, 2019
The Hemingway Code Hero and The Old Man in the seaThe Old Man and the Sea is a beloved novel because of the style in which Hemingway writes, his idea of a hero, and how he applied it affectively. The jurisprudence for his heroes way in which they act with courage, always strive to prove them selves one more time, not to complain about their suffering. The writing techniques brought the apologue in to expert multimedia aliveness by letting the reader see what is going on. Fin simplyy, the way it all just seems to fit together in the end. The Hemingway code is an idea of what all heroes realise in common. In the course of Irving Howe, There emerges...the characteristics hero of the Hemingway world the hero who was wounded the bears his wound in silence who is sensitive to but scorns to devalue his feelings into words who is defeated but finds a remnant of dignity in an honest confrontation of defeat.(232) This code is a code of honor to all who attain it. even in todays life we can find this hero. Take a fireman, there is a fire ripping a building to shreds with its furry. The firemen come in to the flagrant wreck insuring that they will get burnt. Bearing their wounds in silence. When they save the last family in that building they would cheer and go on how brave he was and he would think of it as a days work. But, if he did not save that last family member he would find pride in not having all the family members died in the building. What is the Hemingway Code? Its had the fear of death on your back but you will still fight on. And, even if you do not all in all finish the task you still find pride in what you did.One of Hemingways best novels was The Old Man and the Sea fore it was a story of skill. Santiago, the hero, is an elderly man tanned and wrinkled from fishing all his life and from that he is skilled with the art of the task. He kept the lines Straighter than anyone did, so that at individually level in the darkness of the s tream there would be a bait waiting exactly where he wished it to be for any fish that swam there.(32) This completely shows how precise he was about fishing, proving his skills of a fisherman. If he did not keep the lines straight down they can all be at the same level. Then, only the fish around that one level, which would a shallower part of water, could smell and maybe take the bait. At that if it was in shallow water where the ... ... hero, and how he applied it affectively. The code for his heroes way in which they act with courage, always strive to prove them selves one more time, not to complain about their suffering. The writing techniques that brought the story in to full multimedia life by letting the reader see what is going on. In conclusion, this book is perfect. Works CitedButterfield, Herbie. Ernest Hemingway, in American Fiction New Readings. (1983) 184-199. Rpt. In Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Richard Gray. Vol 41. Detroit, Gale, 1985, 456-457.Fie dler, Leslie. The Death of the Old Men, in his Waiting for the End. (1964) 9-19. Rpt. In Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Carolyn Riley. Vol. 3. Detroit, Gale, 1975, 232-233.---. An Almost Imaginary Interview Hemingway in Ketchlum. In enthusiast Review. (1962) Rpt. In Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Carolyn Riley. Vol. 3. Detroit, Gale, 1975, 232-233.Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea. New York Simon & Schuster, 1952Howe, Irving. A World More Attractive A View of Modern Literature and Politics. (1963) 65-70. Rpt. In Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Carolyn Riley. Vol. 3. Detroit Gale, 1975, 232-233.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Shame on YouIt seems that the average family is spending more time going out to fast food restaurants than eating at home. With more Americans eating out, corpulency is at a new high. With the ever rising obesity problem in America, fast food chains be being pointed out as the ones to blame. Whos at fault? Is it the consumers or the companies making the blebby food readily available? While eating out is becoming the easiest alternative to a sit down dinner at home, the effects of in like manner much fast food can be harmful and sometimes deadly to ones health. It is too easy to place the blame on the companies when the one making the decision to eat out is the consumers.Supply and demand is simple and easy to understand. Broken down it means this supply is the product the companies welcome and demand is what the consumer wants. If the consumers thought that they shouldnt be buying unhealthy foods they wouldnt put any money into that product. Once that product stops making mone y, the companies assess what the needs of the consumers are and then market a new product. Since fast food restaurants are still very much in business, the demands of their unhealthy products are still high. An important factor with Americans gaining more weight is that as they are eating more, they are exercising less. Some people can get international with eating McDonalds everyday because they work out everyday too. But, the majority of us dont take that time out of our day to get dislodge of those extra calor...
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Importance of Death in The Scarlet Letter and My Antonia     It is universally acknowledged that one who comes into this world must excessively leave. Just like everything else, even life and death is a binary composition. You cannot have one without the other. Although not many stack like to think round it, death is a very important factor not only in life, but also in literature. Most often, death is portrayed as evil or gruesome, especially in commercial fiction. However, there are literary texts, which portray death through other factors. Through the depiction of the deaths of Arthur Dimmesdale and Mr. Shimerdas in Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter and Willa Cathers My Antonia, respectively, the reader is sufficient to associate the significance of such issues as guilt, revenge/murder, religion, and the consequences of the two deaths. It may seem odd that instead of concentrating on the central female characters to portray these important issues, I have chosen two male characters. However, it is through the deaths of the male characters that the central females, Hester and Antonia are able to come across as women.   In both these novels, the death scenes of the characters are ambiguous. In relation to one issue or another there is always something vague or missing, which leaves the readers to judge for themselves. The death scene in The Scarlet Letter is very powerful and full of remorse .   Arthur collapsing into the arms of his loved one, after pleading with the people to look at Hesters scarlet letter once again, showing Roger how he had sinned as well, acknowledging Pearl and relieving her of her ...errand as a messenger of anguish (Hawthorne 222) by cuddling her, and fin... ...moil and keep her fathers past alive. Both deaths also imply more than what meets the eye. While Arthurs death is surrounded by the possibility of revenge, Mr. Shimerdas death is encircled by the likelihood of murder. The tw o deaths also highlight the importance of religion. Arthur, being a exalted, is given the strength by God to confront his sins, while Mr. Shimerdas, also a Reverend of sorts, is buried and forced to live an afterlife of uncertain paths due to his faith. Lastly, the aftermaths of these deaths, is what makes The Scarlet Letter and My Antonia two great works of literature. Through Arthurs death, Hester is once again able to display her inner strength by making her own choices and standing by her love, whereas Antonia through the death of her father is able to excel in a mans world, while not forgetting her womanhood.
Plastics and Our EnvironmentWorks Cited MissingPlastics today play an crucial part in cutting-edge technologies such as the space program, bullet-proof vests and prosthetic limbs, as well as in everyday products such as drink containers, medical devices and automobiles. Recycled plastics atomic number 18 used to make polymeric timbers for use in picnic tables, fences, and outdoor toys, thus saving natural lumber. Plastic from 2-liter bottles is even beingness spun into fiber for the production of carpet. They are such a valuable resource, that, as a society, we stupefy become dependent on plastics. It is essential that we develop programs to visit this resource will always be available in the future.Plastics are being used in so many different ways. Whether you are apprised of it or not, plastics play and important part in your life. Plastics versatility allow it to be used in everything from car parts to doll parts, from soft drink bottles to the refrigerators they are stor ed in. From the car you drive to work in to the television you watch when you get home, plastics help make your life easier and better. So how is it that plastics have become so astray used? How did plastics become the material of choice for so many varied applications? The simple answer is that plastics are the material that can provide the things consumers want and need. Plastics have the unique capability to be manufactured to meet very specific functional needs for consumers. So maybe theres another q...
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Freuds ingest of civilization emerges from his understanding of the struggle between sexual desire and destruction. Freud expresses the existence of two remote instincts, concupiscence and Death, via starting from the speculations on the beginning of life and biological parallels. While Eros preserves the living substance and joins it into larger units, such as societies, Death dissolves these units and brings them back to their primeval state. The death drives appear to be regressive, striving for a return to a less differentiated, less organized state of tensionlessness. In contrast, Eros (which embraces sexual and life-preserving instincts) is progressive in seeking ever more differentiated forms of organized life and even the widening of differences in it as between the organism and its surroundings. Freud explains the life as concurrent or mutually opposing action of, and therefore balance between Eros and death instincts. Beside this, civilization works with Eros in order to combine individuals to form families, then families to form nations and then great unity of mankind. Actually, the founding of families aroused from the permanent need of male for venereal satisfaction. As a result of this, the male wanted his sex object, the female near him, while also the female did not want to leave from her children and had to mystify with the stronger male. After that, the sons discovered that a union could be stronger than a single individual by overpowering their father. Because of that, the sons imposed some restrictions to work to each opposite in order to preserve the new state. Therefore, there are two foundations of the communal life of the human beings the power of love between man and muliebrity, and woman and her child, and the compulsion to work created by external necessity. The first one of these foundations is the result of Eros and the other is the result of the death instinct, which serves for Eros to combine individuals. However, in vir tually cases death distinct opposes to civilization because of the results of death instinct.Because the death instinct directs towards the external world and it occurs as an instinct of aggressiveness and destructiveness. In this way the instinct enters the helping of Eros, such that the organism destroys other things instead of destroying itself. However, restriction of these instincts directed towards other things speeds up the process of destr... ...ion. However, difference between male and female is not most strength and endurance, merely about(predicate) the reproductive differences and the ability to nurse of female. Because of these differences, destiny of female in society was designated by the anatomy of female in the past, but this is no longer valid and nor should it be.If we look at the probable criticisms of Gerda Lerner of about the Alphonso Lingis article, Lust, we can see the main difference between them, which is the point of view about woman. Lingis mentions about woman while he is mentioning about prostitutes in Bangkok. This means that like Freud, Lingis sees woman as sex object. Furthermore, he degrades women by saying that travesties in the stage of Calypso are women than women. He does not consider the reproductive property of women and therefore he exhibits the tendency towards men. Gerda Lerner might criticize this point of view of Lingis. Other than that, these two writers do not exhibits big differences since their point of views are different. Gerda Lerner approaches to the topic historically and deal with the subordination of women. On the other hand, Lingis mentions about the authority of self and desire.
Freuds view of civilization emerges from his understanding of the struggle amid physical attraction and Death. Freud expresses the existence of two contrary instincts, concupiscence and Death, via starting from the speculations on the beginning of life and biological parallels. While Eros preserves the living substance and joins it into larger units, such as societies, Death dissolves these units and brings them back to their primeval state. The decease drives appear to be regressive, striving for a return to a less differentiated, less form state of tensionlessness. In contrast, Eros (which embraces sexual and life-preserving instincts) is progressive in seeking ever more differentiated forms of organized life and even the widening of differences in it as between the organism and its surroundings. Freud explains the life as concurrent or mutually opposing action of, and therefore balance between Eros and death instincts. Beside this, civilization works with Eros in order to co mbine individuals to form families, then families to form nations and then great unity of mankind. Actually, the founding of families aroused from the lasting need of manly for genital satisfaction. As a result of this, the male wanted his sex object, the female near him, while also the female did not want to leave from her children and had to stay with the stronger male. After that, the sons discovered that a union could be stronger than a single individual by overpowering their father. Because of that, the sons imposed near restrictions to work to each other in order to preserve the new state. Therefore, there are two foundations of the communal life of the human beings the power of shaft between man and woman, and woman and her child, and the compulsion to work created by external necessity. The first one of these foundations is the result of Eros and the other is the result of the death instinct, which serves for Eros to combine individuals. However, in most cases death dist inct opposes to civilization because of the results of death instinct.Because the death instinct directs towards the external world and it occurs as an instinct of aggressiveness and destructiveness. In this way the instinct enters the service of Eros, such that the organism destroys other things instead of destroying itself. However, restriction of these instincts directed towards other things speeds up the process of destr... ...ion. However, difference between male and female is not about strength and endurance, but about the reproductive differences and the ability to nurse of female. Because of these differences, destiny of female in society was designated by the class of female in the past, but this is no longer valid and nor should it be.If we look at the probable criticisms of Gerda Lerner of about the Alphonso Lingis article, Lust, we can see the main difference between them, which is the point of view about woman. Lingis mentions about woman while he is mentioning about prostitutes in Bangkok. This means that like Freud, Lingis sees woman as sex object. Furthermore, he degrades women by saying that travesties in the stage of Calypso are women than women. He does not consider the reproductive property of women and therefore he exhibits the tendency towards men. Gerda Lerner power criticize this point of view of Lingis. Other than that, these two writers do not exhibits big differences since their point of views are different. Gerda Lerner approaches to the topic historically and deal with the subordination of women. On the other hand, Lingis mentions about the representation of self and desire.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Gods costence can be proven in a multitude of ways. However, several introductory caveats ar in order. First, by God, we mean the traditional Christian concept of an all- strong and wise creator. Second, the project of proving any amour is logic or science is nearly impossible. Even the best laid limpid plans and the most iron clad arguments can be torn to pieces by a skilled logician. Such a state does not invalidate the validations in question, just merely that the language of the discipline is such that any logical design can be manipulated and refuted by unitary who ardently desires it be refuted.What is beingness dealt with here is that faith in the God of the Christians is not an irrational, blind faith, further one that is eminently reasonable and defensible on metaphysical, logical and scientific grounds. 1. The proof of Aristotle, used by Thomas Aquinas later, is the hylomorphic proof and is very important to medieval thoughts about God and the nature of his existence . The theory centers around the distinction amidst first, form and matter which, second, corresponds to action and passion, or act and potency.The form of an object is it in act, or developing towards its natural telos, or end. The matter is passive, that which has non being, that which still necessitate to be developed. entirely the nature of reality is such that as one rises in familiarity, the form dominates over the matter. Mathematics, for example, is almost purely form, with nevertheless a modest amount of material stuff. simply what is the origin of such things? Only the creation of pure form, and hence, pure act, that is, God.God is pure act, pure perfection with no much destiny for development. It is the form of Forms that renders unchanging knowledge possible. The matter within its formal shell is not nly passive, but accidental, in that it is only the generator of sensations, colors, etc. But such things cannot exist without a substratum (there is no red, witho ut it being a red something), and hence, form is the object of knowledge, not the matter, or the accident of the object. But knowledge only sees form, never matter.Matter might present form in the guise of a sensate object, but logical and mathematics does not conk out this way, these are separated from matter. Hence, the more universal the knowledge, the less matter. Hence, the ultimately form of knowledge is Pure form, hence God (Owens, 1980 20-25). 2. Similarly, the proof of St. Augustine from the point of view of unchanging truth. Any such unchanging truth must have a cause. The truths of mathematics or logic never change regardless of time or place, and hence, there must be an entity in existence who could have brought such a world into being.Such an entity must never change or diverge its being in any way, and hence, must be perfect (the only need for change is to improve, if no need for change, then there is no need for improvement). Therefore, God exists (Augustine, 1996 1 9). 3. In terms of scientific proof, there is the entire question of natural law. The world is held together by a series of laws that never face to change. They are regular and can be seen throughout nature, from its macro to its micro level.The sensate part of nature, logically, is anterior to the laws that allow it to exist. Hence, the laws of nature had to have come first, and are the form within which the sensate part of nature functions. Hence, an entity must exist that is capable of creating natural laws within which all created being can function in a regular and logical manner. Only God can be the cause of such things (Copleston, . 2006, 518). 4. The Russian philosopher Vladimir Solovyev uses the critique of nominalism to prove the existence of God in his Lectures on Godmanhood.First, the idea of empiricism is faulty since no real individuals exist (only God has this quality, but this is putting the cart before the horse). The objects seen in daily witness are themselves n ot particulars, but universals, ultimately reducible to pulses of energy. Force is the ultimate reality of being in terms of metaphysics. Hence, the empirical approach to the world is arbitrary, since the particulars we move for granted are in fact huge and complex collections of force and energy that appear to the senses as colors, sounds, textures, etc.Hence, energy is the source of being, and hence, retain the ontological status as universals. But this can not be sufficient, since the universal nature of forces must be accounted for. And this accounting can only be an entity powerful enough to have first created these forces that ultimately would register in human senses as objects, seemingly solid and singular, but in truth, complex and made up of universals (and in fact, representing universals in themselves).But this ultimately spiritual reality must have an equally spiritual cause, that is God. In other words, as the empirical qualities of objects exist only in the mind, the ultimate reality of the world is to be found in universals, and hence, the world of spirit. But all spiritual objects must have a cause that is equally creative and powerful (Solovyev, 1948 60-63). 5. de de Spinozas concept of God is slightly different from the Christian view, but not entirely dissimilar.Spinoza argues for a single entity, Substance, that is the ultimate stern for all sensate objects. Substance is God, the ultimate basis (avoiding the word cause here) for all change and movement. Logically, there is only one ultimate Substance since there is no real reason for positing and more than one entity that, itself, can survive all change, but is not operational to the senses. Spinozas Substance is not something that can be apprehended by senses, but only by the mind, and hence, is a spiritual being.While umpteen writers have broken their backs trying to bind that nature is God for Spinoza, there is no reason to hold this God is what is behind nature and is the ultimate basis for all being. Spinoza is not a pantheist, as nearly all commentators hold. Spinoza held that all change needs a basis, something that does not change. That which we see as changing is the modes of existence, the sensate objects in space and time (or mind and body). All of these sensate things can be reduced to that which is extended and that which is mental, ultimately one thing seen from two different points of view.But these two are merely two available modes for human comprehension of an infinite object that never changes, but is at the root of change, its basis, and that is Substance, or God, an infinite being who lies at the root of all change and the laws that govern change. It itself, does not change, but contains infinite attributes that only appear incompletely to human beings under two attributes only. Spinoza does not hold that there needs to be a cause of all things, but he does hold that there needs to be a basis of all things, that this is God (Della Rocca, 200 8, 42-48)6. The last proof or vision of God is to be found in Apostolos Makrakis, the little know 19th century Greek metaphysician. He was a Christian rationalist who held that Descartes butchered his own method. Makrakis holds that one can begin with Descartes ontological doubt. But the conclusion to this doubt, cogito ergo sum, is an arbitrary end point. When I engage in methodological doubt, I come up with several conclusions first, the doubter exists, second, that the doubter is not the cause of his own existence, and third, that God exists necessarily.All of this derives from the single act of cognition it is the true unpacking of the cogito. Since if the cogito is true, than the other propositions are equally true at the same time, known intuitively. Since the cogito is not self-created, then the outside world and God must exist necessarily in the same act of cognition as the original cogito. If one must strip away the outside world in order to reach the cogito, than the outsi de world is real, since in removing it, one reaches the truth of existence. The outside world cannot be a phantom then, if the doubter is not self-created.Something needed to have created and sustained the doubter, and this is as certain as the cogito itself. But since that outside world itself is not self-created (in other words, that the outside world does not know itself through itself, but through another), than God necessarily exists, and again, as true as the cogito itself. Hence, the cogito really says I exist, the outside world exists, God exists, all at the same time all in the same act of cognition since the cogito itself implies it (Makrakis, 1956, 42-43).Again, none of these proofs are final, but the same can be said for all logic and science. But these do who that reason assents to the existence of God as infinite and all powerful. Spinozas approach is the most interesting, since it is compatible with mechanistic science, but holds that such science necessarily needs a basis for action, and this is Substance. The argument 3 above is also very difficult to refute, since one cannot hold to an ordered universe without holding to natural law, and if that, than the cause of natural law itself.If that is denied, then one is in the unenviable position of trying to argue that the material objects of nature can and did exist without a law to govern their actions. Hence, evolution is impossible. Natural laws (and a lawgiver) had to be before the actual sensate part of creation. But this, in an odd way, is very similar to the argument of Spinoza. It seems that science itself cannot function without recognizing natural law and its a priori existence with respect to the objects of science themselves.BibliographyOwens, Joseph (1980) Thomas Aquinas on the Existence of God. SUNY Press Augustine (1996) On The Free Choice of the Will Readings in chivalric Philosophy. Ed. Andrew Schoedinger. Oxford. 3-24 Copleston, Frederick (2006) History of Philosophy Medieval P hilosophy. Continuum International. Solovyev, Vladimir (1948) Lectures on Godmanhood. Lindisfarne Press (this is sometimes called Lectures on Divine Humanity) Della Rocca, Michael (2008) Spinoza. Taylor and Francis Makrakis, Apostolos (1956) The Tree of Life. in Foundations of Philosophy. Chicago, OCES. 1-104
Sunday, May 26, 2019
7) entropy from a small bookstore ar shown in the accompanying table. The manager wants to send for Sales from Number of Sales tidy plaza Working. Number of sales people working Sales (in $1000) 4 12 5 13 8 15 10 16 12 20 12 22 14 22 16 25 18 25 20 28 x=11. 9 y=19. 8 SD(x)=5. 30 SD(y)=5. 53 a) occur the slope estimate, b1. Use technology or the ruler below to chance on the slope. b1=rsysx Enter x,y Data in TI-84 under STAT STAT CALC 8 LinReg(a+bx) b1=1. 023 b) What does b1 mean, in this context?The slope tells how the response shifting hanges for a one unit step in the predictor Thus, an redundant $1,023 of sales associated with apiece additional sales person working. c) Find the intercept, b0. b0=y-b1x =19. 8-1. 023(11. 9) For this problem, enjoyment technology, rounding to trey decimal places. b0=7. 622 d) What does b0 mean in this contet? Is it meanful? The intercept overhauls as a starting cling to for the predicitons. It shuld only be interpreted if a 0 time hold dear for the predictor variable supports sense for the context of the situation. On average, $7,622 is expected when 0 sales people are working.It is not meaningful because it does not make sense in this context. e) Write the equation that predicts Sales from Number of Sales life-sized come in Working. Recall that the slope of the equation b1=1. 023 and the intercept is b0=7. 622 Complete the equation. Sales=7. 622+1. 023 *(Number of Sales People Working) f) If 19 people are working, what sales do you predict? refilling 19 for the minute of sales people working in the equation found in the previous step and solve for Sales. Sales=7. 622+1. 023 *(Number of Sales People Working) =7. 622+1. 023*19Substitute. =27. 059Simplify. * none that each unit of Sales represents $1000. Thus, the predicted sales for 19 people working is 27,059 dollars. g) If sales are actually $26,000, what is the value of the residual? Subtract the predicated value found in the previous step from the actual value. 26,000-27,059=-1059 Thus, the value of the residual is -1059 dollars. h) Have the sale been overestimated or underestimated The predicted sales are $27,059 and the actual sales are $26,000. Since $27,059 $26,000, the sales were overestimated. 13) Of the 46 individuals who responded, 25 are lay down-to doe with, and 21 are not concerned. of those concerned about security are male and 5 of those not concerned are male. If a respondent is selected at haphazard, find each of the fallowing conditional probabilities. Male Female Total Concerned 9 16 25 non Concerned 5 16 21 Total 14 32 46 a) The respondent is male, given that the respondent is not concerned about security. P(MaleNot Concerned) = 521 = 0. 238 b) The respondent is not concerned about security, given that is female P(Not ConceredFemale) = 1632 = 0. 500 c) The respondent is female, given that the respondent is concerned about security. P(FemaleConcerned) = 1625 = 0. 40 14) It was found that 76% of the popu lation were infected with a virus, 21% were without clean water, and 18% were infected and without clean water Clean Water Yes No Total Infected 0. 58 0. 18 0. 76 Not Infected 0. 21 0. 03 0. 24 Total 0. 79 0. 21 1. 00 a) Whats the hazard that a surveyed person had clean water and was not infected? .21 had clean water and was not infected 15) A survey concluded that 54. 4% of the households in a expoundicular country dumbfound both a landline and a cell phone, 32. 6% fetch only cell phone services but no landline, and 4. 6% subscribe no telephone services at all. ) What proportion of households have a landline? Begin by making a contingency table. Cell sound Yes No Total Landline 0. 545 0. 083 0. 628 No Landline 0. 326 0. 046 0. 372 Total 0. 871 0. 129 1. 00 The completed contingency tables shows that P(landline) = 0. 628. b) Are having a cell phone and having a landline main(a)? Explain. Events A and B are independent when P(BA) = P(B). To determine wheter having a cel l phone and having a landline are indepented, find P(landlinecell phone) and P(landline). Recall from part a) that P(landline) =0. 628 PBA=P(A and B)P(A)Use the formula to find P(landlinecell phone) Plandlinecell phone=P(landline and cell phone)P(cell phone) Since the contingency table shows that P(landline and cell phone)=0. 545 and P(cell phone)=0. 871, substitute these values into the equation. Divide to find the conditional probability, rounding to 3 decimal places. Plandlinecell phone=0. 5450. 871=0. 626 Thus, P(landlinecell phone)=0. 626 and P(landline)=0. 628. Because 0. 626 is very penny-pinching to 0. 628, having a cell phone and having a landline are probably independent. Of the households surveyed, 62. 6% with cell phones had landlines, and 62. 8% of all households did. 6) A marketing agency has developed three vacation packages to promote a timeshare plan at a new repeat. They estimate that 30% of potential drop customers bequeath choose the Day Plan, which does not include overnight accommodations 30% leave behind choose the Overnight Plan, which includes one night at the resort and 40% will choose the Weekend Plan, which includes deuce nights. a) Find the expected value of the number of nights that potential customers will destiny Vacation Package Nights include Probability P(X=x) Day Plan 0 30100=0. 3 Overnight Plan 1 30100=0. 3 Weekend Plan 2 40100=0. 4 This, P(X=0)=0. 3, P(X=1) =0. 3, and P(X=2)=0. Use the formula E(X) = ? x P(x) to detrime the expected value. E(X) = ? x P(x) = 0(0. 3) +1(0. 3) +2(0. 4) = 1. 1 There, the expected value of the number of night potential customers will need is 1. 1 b) Find the step difference of the number of nights potential customers will need. The standard refraction is the intravenous feedingsquare root of the mutation. First, Find the Variance To do so, find the deviation of each value of X from the mean and square each deviation. The variance is the expected value of these squared deviatio ns and is found victimization the formula below. = Var(X) = ? (x )? P(x) Find the deviation for each value of X.Remember that E(x)=1. 1 Vacation Package Nights Included Probability P(X=x) Deviation (x E(X)) Day Plan 0 30100=0. 3 0 1. 1 = -1. 1 Overnight Plan 1 30100=0. 3 1 1. 1 = -0. 1 Weekend Plan 2 40100=0. 4 2 1. 1 = 0. 9 Now find the variance using the formula =Var(X)=? (x )? P(x) Var(X) = ? (x )? P(x) = (-1. 1)? (0. 3) + (-0. 1)? (0. 3) + (0. 9)? (0. 4) = 0. 69 Finally, the standard deviation also known as ? is the square root of the variance. ? = Var(x) = 0. 69 = 0. 83 Therefore, the standard deviation of the number of nights potential customers will need is approximately 0. 83 nights. 7) A grocery supplier believes that in a dozen eggs, the mean number of disturbed eggs is 0. 2 with a standard deviation of 0. 1 eggs. You buy 3 dozen eggs without checking them. a) How many broken eggs do you get? The expected value of the sum of random variables is the sum of the exp ected values of each idividula random variable. Find the sum of the expected values where X is the total number of broken eggs in the three dozen, and X, X, X Represent the three individual dozen eggs. E(X) = E(X1) + EX2+ EX3 = 0. 2 + 0. 2 + 0. 2 = 0. 6 Therefore, the expected value of X is 0. 6 eggs. b) Whats the standard deviation?The variance of the sum of independent variables is the sum of their individual variances. Find the variance for each carton, add the variances, and then receive the square root of the sum to find the standard deviation. The variance of each individual dozen is the square of each dozens standard deviation. Var(X1) = Var(X2) = Var(X3) = 0. 12= 0. 01 Find the sum of the variances to find the variance of the sum. Var(X) = VarX1+ VarX2+ VarX3 = 0. 01 + 0. 01 + 0. 01 = 0. 03 Recall that the standard deviation is the square root of the variance. Find the standard deviation. SD(X) = Var(x) = 0. 03 = 0. 17Therefore, the standard deviation is 0. 17 eggs c) What assumptions did you have to make about the eggs in order to answer this forefront? The variance for the sum of random variables is only the sun of variances of each random variable in certain fonts. Review the assumption that must be made to allow the variance to be the sum of the individual variances. 18) An insurance company estimates that it should make an yearbook put on of $260 on each homeowners policy written, with a standard deviation of $6000. a) Why is the standard deviation so large? Home insurance is used to protect the owner financially in the fact of a problem.If a catastrophe occurs, then the insurance company will cover the cost of the damage. If a catastrophe never occurs, then the insurance company pays nothing. Meanwhile, the owner pays the insurance company at regular intervals whether or not a catastrophe occurs. The expected value is the mean yearbook profit on all of the policies and the standard deviation is a measure of how much annual profits flush toilet differ from the mean. Use this information with the occurrence that claims are rare, but very costly, occurrences. b) If the company writes only four of these policies, what are the mean and standard deviation of the annual profit?LetX1,X2, X3,,Xn represent the annual profit on the n policies and let X be the random variable for the total annual profit on n polices written. X=X1+X2+ X3++Xn The expected value of the sum is the sum of the expected values. Find the expected value of the annual profit on each policy. EX1=EX2=EX3=EX4=$260 Now find the sum of the expected values. EX=EX1+EX2+EX3+EX4 =260+260+260+260 = $1040 Therefore, the mean annual profit is $1040 To find the standard deviation of the annual profit, use the fact that te variances of the sum of independent variables is the sum of their individual variances. First find the variance for each policy.The variance for the policy is the square of the standard deviation. VarX1=VarX2=VarX3=VarX4=60002=36,000,000 VarX=VarX 1+VarX2+VarX3+VarX4 = 4(36,000,000) = 144,000,000 Evaluate the square root of the variance to find the standard deviation. SDX=VarX =144,000,000 =$12,000 Therefore, the standard deviation is $12,000 c) If the company writes 10,000 of these policies, what are the mean and standard deviation of annual profit? The expected value of the sum is the sum of the expected values. The expected value of each policy was found earlier. EX1=EX2=EX3= =EX10,000=$260 Now find the sum of expected values. EX=EX1+EX2+EX3+ +EX10,000 10,000(260) =$2,600,000 Therefore, the mean annual profit is $2,600,000 To find the standard deviation of the annual profit, use the fact that the variance of the sum of independent variables is the sum of their individual variances. First find the variance for each policy. The variance for the policy is the square of the standard deviation and was found earlier. VarX1=VarX2=VarX3= =VarX10,000=36,000,000 Now sum the variances to find the variances of the sum. VarX=VarX1+Var X2+VarX3+ +VarX10,000 =10,000(36,000,000) =360,000,000,000 Evaluate the square root of the variance to find the standard deviation. SDX=Var(X) =360,000,000,000 $600,000 Therefore, the standard deviation is $600,000. d) Do you think the company is likely to be profitable? Recall that the mean annual profit for 10,000 policies is $2,600,000. While this number seems quite large, it is necessary to determine how likely a profit is to ensure that this company will be profitable. Find the distance in standard deviation of $0 from the mean to determine how rare an occurrence of no profit would be. z=x- =0-2,600,000600,000 =-4. 3 Thus, $0 is 4. 3 standard deviation below the mean. ** handbill that approximately 95% of the annual profits should lie within two standard deviations of the mean.Evaluate whether the distance of $0 from the mean is convincing enough to determine whether or not the company will be profitable. e) What assumptions underlie your analysis? Can you think of circumstance s under which those assumptions might be violated? The variance of the sum of random variables is only the sum of the variances of each random variables in certain cases. Review the assumption that must be made to allow the variance to be the sum of the individual variances. Then chose the situation that would create an association among policy losses. 19) A farmer has 130 lbs. of apples and 60 lbs. f potatoes for sale. The market set for apples (per pound) each day is a random variable with a mean of 0. 8 dollars and a standard deviation of 0. 4 dollars. Similarly, for a pound of potatoes, the mean equipment casualty is 0. 4 dollars and the standard deviation is 0. 2 dollars. It also costs him 5 dollars to bring all the apples and potatos to the market. The market is busy with shoppers, so espouse that hell be able to sell all of each type of produce at the days price. a) Define your random variables, and use them to transmit the farmers net income. A random variables outcome i s bases on a random event.Therefore let the random variables represent the factors that will be randomly determined each day. The random variables should represent the market prices of the two items. A = price per pound of apples P = price per pound of potatoes The profit is equal to the total income minus the total cost. The income is found by multiplying the market price for apples by the total number of pounds sold and adding it to the product of the market price for potatoes and the number of pounds of potatoes sold. The total cost is the transparent cost. Profit = 130A + 60P 5 b) Find the mean. The mean of the net income is the expected value of the profit.Profit = 130A + 60P 5 E(Proft) = E(130A + 60P 5) Use the property E(X + Y) = E(X) + E(Y) to get the expected value of the profit as the sum of two separate expected values E=(Profit) = E(130A +60P -5) = E(130A) + (60P 5) = E(130A) + E(60P 5) Now use the property EXc= E(X)c E(Profit) = E(130A) + E(60P 5) = E(130A) + E(6 0P) 5 Finally, use the property E(aX) = aE(X) to remove the coefficient from the expected values. E(Profit) = E(130A) + E(60P) 5 = 130E(A) + 60E(P) 5 Substitute the known expected values of the prices of apples and potatoes in the equation. E(Profit) = E(130A) + E(60P) 5 E(0. 8) + E(0. 4) 5 Evaluate the expected profit. E(Profit) = 130(0. 8) + 60(0. 4) 5 = 123 Therefore, the mean is 123 dollars. c) Find the standard deviation of the net income. To find the standard deviation, first find the variance and then necessitate the square root, since the properties useful in this case are in terms of variance and not standard deviation SD(Profit) = Var(Profit) = Var(130A+60P-5) First use the property Var(X + Y) = Var(X) + Var(Y) to declare the variance of the profit as the sum of two separate variance Var(Profit) = Var(130A + 60P 5) = Var(130A) + (60P 5) =Var(130A) + Var(60P 5)Now use the property Var(X c) = Var(X) to simplify the jiffy variance Vr(Profit) = Var(130A) + Var(60P 5) = Var(130A) + Var(60P) Finally, use the property VaraX=a2VarX to duplicate each variance. Var(Profit) = Var(130A) + Var(60P) = 1302VarA+ 602VarP = 16,900Var(A) + 3600Var(P) Evaluate the variance of the profit. Var(Profit) = 16,900(0. 16) + 3600(0. 04) = 2848 Lastly, find the standard deviation, rounding to two decimal place. SD(Profit) = VarProfit = 2848 = 53. 37 Therefore, the standard deviation of the net income is 53. 37 dollars. d) Do you need to make any assumptions in calculating the mean?Recall that the mean of the sum of two or more random variables is the sum of the means. Determine what, if any, assumptions are made to use this property. Do you need to make any assumptions in calculating the standard deviation? Recall that the variance of the sum of two random variables is only the sum of their individual variances in certain cases, Determine what, if any, assumptions are made to use this property. 20) A salesman normally makes a sale ( obstructs) on 65% of his prese ntations. Assuming the presentations are independent, find the probability of the following. ) He fails to close for the first time on his sixth attempt. Use the formula below to determine the probability, where p is the probability achievement, q=1 p and X is the number of trails until the first success occurs. P(X=x) = qx-1p Find the values for p and q. **Note that in this case that a success is defined as failed to close p = 0. 35 q = 0. 65 Substitute and solve to find P(X=6). Rounding to four decimal places P(X=6) = qx-1p = 0. 656-1(0. 35) = 0. 0406 Therefore, the probability he fails to close for the first tie on his sixth attempt is 0. 0406 b) He closes his first presentation on his fifth attempt.Find the values for p and q. **Note that in this case that a success is defined as making a sale p = 0. 65 q = 0. 35 Substitute and solve to find P(X = 5), rounding to four decimal places P(X=5) = qx-1p = 0. 355-1(0. 65) = 0. 0098 Therefore, the probability he closes his first pres entation on his fifth attempt is 0. 0098 c) The first presentation he closes will be on his second attempt. Find the values for p and q. Note that in this case that a success is defined as making a sale. p = 0. 65 q = 0. 35 Substitute and solve to find P(X=2) P(X=2) = qx-1p = 0. 352-1(0. 65) = 0. 2275Therefore, the probability the first presentation he closes will be on his second attempt is 0. 2275 d) The first presentation he closes will be on one of his first three attempts. Use the fact that the compliment of an even is equal to 1 P(X=x) to find the probability. The compliment event is that he will not close a sale on any of his first three attempts. Find the probability that he does not close on his first three attempts, rounding to four decimal places. 0. 353=0. 0429 Subtract from 1 to find the probability the first presentation he closes will be on one of his first three attempts 1 0. 429 = 0. 9571 Therefore, the probability the first presentation he closes will be on one o f his first three attempts is 0. 9571 21) College learners are a major target for advertisements for denotation cards. At a university, 73% of students surveyed said that they had opened a new credit card scotch within the past year. If that percentage is accurate, how many students would you expect to survey before finding one who had not opened a new account in the past year? First check to see that the cells are Bernoulli trials. Trials are Bernoulli if the following three conditions are satisfied. 1.There are only two possible outcomes (called success and failure) for each trial. 2. The probability of success, denoted p, is the same on every trial. (The probability of failure, 1 p is often denoted q. ) 3. The trials are independent There are only two possible outcomes for each trial because a student either opened a credit card account in the past year or they did not. The probability of success is the same on every trial, based on the percent given in the problem statement. The trails are independent because each students response is not dependent on any other students response.Thus, the trials of surveying the students are Bernoulli trials. A geometric probability deterrent example models how yearn it will take to achieve the first success in a series of Bernoulli trials. Let X be the number of students that will have to be surveyed before finding the first student who did not open a credit card in the past year. The two outcomes are a student who did not open a credit card account in the past year *success) and a student who opened a credit card account in the past year (failure). The probability of a failure is given in the problem statement as q = 73% = 0. 73.Find the probability of success by subtracting this from 1. P = 1 0. 73 = 0. 27 Find the expected value of X. In a geometric model, the expected value is EX= 1p , where p is the probability of success. Round up to the nearest integer. EX=10. 27=4 Therefore, on average, you would expect to survey 4 students before finding one who had not opened a new account in the past year. 22) A certain tennis player makes a successful first serve 82% of the time/ Assume that each serve is independent of the others. If she serves 7 times, whats the probability she gets a) all 7 serves in? b) exactly 5 serves in? ) at least 5 serves in? d) no more than 5 serves in? The first step is to check to see that these are Bernoulli trails. The first serves can be considered Bernoulli trials. There are only two possible outcomes, successful and unsuccessful. The probability of any first serve being good is given as p = 0. 82. Finally, it is assumed that each serve is independent of the others. Next define the random variable. Each question deals with the number of serves, so let X be the number of successful serves in n = 7 first serves. Now determine which probability model is appropriate for these problems.Recall that geometric probability models deal with how long it will take to achieve a success. A binomial probability model describes the number of successes in a specific number of trails. All the question deal with the number of successful serves so the binomial probability model Binom(7,0. 82 is appropriate here. a) all 7 serves in? The probability that she ges all 7 serves in is P(X=7). To use the binomial probability model Binom(n,p), use the fallowing formula, where n is the number of trials, p is the probability of success, q is the probability of failure (q = 1 p), and X is the number of successes in n trials.PX=x= nxpxqn x, where nx= n x n-x First substitute the correct values into the formula PX=7= 770. 8270. 187- 7 Now simplify. P(X = 7) ? 0. 249 Therefore, the probability that she gets all 7 serves in is approximately 0. 249 binomPDF(7, . 82, 7) = b) exactly 5 serves in? The probability she gets exactly 5 serves in is P(X = 5). As in part a, use the formula PX=x= nxpxqn x to find this probability PX=5= 750. 8250. 187 5 ?0. 252 Therefore, the probabil ity she gets exactly 5 serves in is approximately 0. 252 binomPDF(7, . 82, 5) = c) at least 5 serves in?To find P(at least 5 serves in), first determine and an vista that is equal to this probability. Note that the wording at least 5, means 5 or more, meaning that there can 5, 6, or 7 serves in. Thus, the probability equals P(X=5) + P(X=6) + P(X=7). So to find the probability that she got at least 5 serves in, evaluate. P(X=5) + P(X=6) + P(X=7) = 75(0. 82)50. 187-5+76(0. 82)6(0. 18)7-6+77(0. 82)7(0. 18)7-7 ?0. 885 Therefore, the probability she gets at least 5 serves in is approximately 0. 885 binomPDF(7, . 82, 5) + binomPDF(7, . 82, 6) + binomPDF(7, . 82, 7) = d) no more than 5 serves in?To find P(no more than 5), first determine an expression that is equal to this probability. Note that the wondering no more than 5 means 5 or less, meaning that there can be 0 thru 5 successful serves. Thus, the probability equals P(X? 5). So to find the probability that there are no more than 5 s erves in, evaluate P(X? 5), which is equal to P(X=0) + P(X=1) + + P(X=5), using the formula PX=x= nxpxqn x P(X=0) + P(X=1) + + P(X=5) = 70(0. 82)00. 187-0+71(0. 82)1(0. 18)7-1 + + 75(0. 82)5(0. 18)7-5 ? 0. 368 Therefore, the probability that there are no more than 5 serves in is approximately 0. 368 binomCDF(7, . 82, 5)
Saturday, May 25, 2019
In the Curious Incident of a dog in the nighttime from Mark Haddon, the author is trying to bring us nearer to the life of an autistic child by showing us his realm of daintyking and behaviorHaddon creates in his book a falsehood that genuinely stands to a greater extent than in the background. The story talks ab break the autistic fteen-year-old narrator, Christopher John Francis Boone, who nds the dog of a neighbour dead in the garden. He wants to nd out who killed the dog and wishes to write a book about it.He is standing in front of many problems to nd out what genuinely happened, because his father doesnt like the idea that he is meddling in the business of others. In trying to nd his book his father took a behavior from him, he nds permitter from his mother, who seemed to be dead at the beginning when in actuality she is still alive. After that, he is convinced his father is a liar and the murderer of the dog, and he runs away to his mummy in fear that his own dad wants to kill him. At the end of the book they are showing the difculty to get condence back from an autistic child.In the foreground is the behavior of the autistic Christopher Boone. Directly from the beginning we notice that something is different with Christopher Boone. The book never directly talks about autism, but several aspects let us know this.The capitals in the book are counted as prime number this language technique lets us directly go in the melodic theme of Christopher Boone. His thinking is that prime numbers are acting like life logical, but impossible to fully comprehend. This missing of comprehension of human being is lie throughout the whole book, for example that he has difculty determining peoples emotions from their facial expressions, but he can name each country in the world, their capitals and every prime number up to 7057. Christopher recognizes his social limitations, and he focuses instead on the extraordinary intelligence he displays in other regards.His co mplex drumhead is shown in the book with mathematical forms and information about space and physical science.Christopher Boone is the only one in his class who is making the A-level in mathematics, with the wish to nish it in physics too and when he is adult he would like to be an astronaut.These inputs, whether we understand them or not, are helping the accepter to get more and more into the way of thinking of this autistic child. We are reading theentire book through the eyes of Christopher, the narrator, showing us righteous what he is seeing and feeling. This technique is exceedingly important for the story and the message of the book.Christophers poor social skills are shown from the beginning to the end of the Book. He quickly feels everywherewhelmed and his social decits lead to misunderstandings and conicts.He doesnt let people meet him, when an ofcer tries to touch him he assaults him and has to go to the jail. But even during that incident, he enjoyed the fact that his cell has perfect dimensions and he feels secure. Christophers obsession with the physical details of his surroundings, particularly aspects of color, number, and timeserves as a great asset to him in his investigation. When his father arrives, even he is allowed to touch him, other than with his hands spread like a fan. The truth is one of the most important things for him as an autistic child, because his logical brain may have a fit with a lie because there are going to be a million new possibilities. This difculty with an autistic child is also shown in the role of the parents.His mother, who is imagination to be dead at the beginning, was running away because she couldnt handle the carnal knowledge with her own child. The father as comfortably, who was always calmer and had a better relation with his child, is coming to a point of desperation. Christopher wants to nd out who killed the dog, the investigation into which he tries to stop because of his own guilt. However, his child is special and he doesnt want to get wind what his dad is saying and changing the words in his mouth. The dad also is unable to be honest with his child, and invents the story of the dead mother to protect him.Christopher has a strong desire for order, and he works to remove any sense of disorder from his life. For instance, his system for determining how good the day will be, despite its sheer illogicalness, provides him with asense of control over the ambiguities and uncertainties he encounters every day. The difculty of a normal day with an autistic child is shown well at the beginning. The farther we go into the book it loses a musical composition of consequence. The author is giving us several different aspects of an autistic child. What makes the story so special is that at the end Christopher is over breaking his fears in running away from his father because he killed the dog and lied to him.Another problem that is shown in the book is the difculty in creating fr iendships. Christopher is going to a special school hes calling the other children stupid and dumb because nobody has his level of logical thinking. He has no friends, the only someone he is talking with and trusting is Siobhan. At the beginning we dont know who this person is, which lets us think he has a friend in his age that he can communicate with. At the end we realize it is his teacher and it is really interesting to see the methods and the ideas that the teacher is giving or rearing with Christopher.The book tries to show the world what is going on in a child with autism. Of course, it is not a guide on how to handle autistic children, it is sightly a tale intended to help non-autistic people to understand better the thinking of this child.The author himself worked in preparation for his book with autistic children. In my mental picture the book is really well structured and successfully brings the message that it should bring. Myself as a total beginner in this arena of thinking, now know more about this illness and about the rules and regulations that thinking in the head of such a child seem to follow.The difculties surrounding this illness are really well represented in the role of the parents. We are just seeing the thoughts of him and his feelings, but the story is really good at creating just enough clues to see more between the lines. The mother who is running away because of her failure to cope raising her own child, the dad who is trying to handle this struggle all alone and who is just able to do that by constantly lying to his own child. The book was published in two versions, one for children andonce for adults. In my opinion, the title and the story of the book seems more for children than for adults. However, when you take a look at the message and the background of this boy, and let the story be a side issue, it is a really sensible and informative book about the life of a child with special issues. It seems that the end is a just a little bit thin and it seems that the author was not that careful enough at wrapping up the ending with the fears and consequences of autism.The book was criticized with the idea that the author is giving inaccurate descriptions about a child with autism, although the novel never mentionsautism. Seeing as Christopher displays several of the symptoms that are included in this illness, they take the logical conclusion.I would recommend this book to everybody who wants to read a funny, informative and lovely story about a boy with special needs. The logical thinking presented which also teach a little bit about math and physics is what makes this ctional book really interesting.
Friday, May 24, 2019
What form of political sympathies was well-nigh effective- body politic or absolutism- for the ordinal and eighteenth centuries in europium?During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there were two forms of government. The two forms of government were democracy and absolutism. Both of these forms of government were effective in their own directions. Absolutism though was the most effective during this time. Absolutism is when the reinr has unlimited author. Many rulers had a democracy government scarce absolutism was more effective because the rulers had all the power and it was unmanageable to take advantage of them rather than a democracy where many rulers can enchant over thrown by the the great unwashed of that country. Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince, felt that the best way to rule was to be feared. He wrote in his book The Prince, Men have less hesitation in offending a man who is loved than oneness who is feared, for love is held by a bond of obligation which , as men are wicked, is broken whenever personal advantage suggests it. What he means by this is that if you rule by fear volume are less likely to defy you than if you rule with love.This would be extremely helpful when running a country. King crowd together I also believed that absolutism was the way to rule. He thought that kings were like Gods therefore he believed in Divine Right. Divine Right is the whim that kings get their authority from God. The demesne of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth for kings are not only Gods lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon Gods throne, but even by God himself they are called gods. What he means by this is that Kings have every right and power needed to rule. With Kings having every right to rule there would be no questions as to whether or not a King is fit to rule King Louis XIV believed in absolutism. He once stated The aim alone has the right to deliberate and decide, and the functions of all the other members consist only in carrying out the commands given to them. . . . The more you grant . . . (to the assembled people), the more it claims. . . . The divert of the state must come first. King Louis XVI is saying that if acountry is ruled by a monarch it is more organized.He also says that people are greedy, so they are more careed in themselves and not the country. He says that Absolutism is the government that makes sure the country is taken care of. The interest of the state must come first, otherwise the entire country would collapse Even though absolutism was the most effective form of government during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries many philosophes believed in democracy. Democracy is when the people of the government have a say in what goes on in the government. One philosopher who believed in democracy was Voltaire. He believed that peoples freedoms are essential, especially the freedom of speech. He once wrote I may disapprove of what you say, but I will agitate to the death your r ight to say it. . . . The best government seems to be that in which all ranks of men are equally protected by laws. . . . He is stating his belief in the right of free speech, and that democracy is best.While his beliefs are tempting to many people, if the government did as he believed, there would be nothing but chaos. At that point in time, the peoples minds were not as smart and reasonable. This type of government would end terribly. John Locke is another philosopher who believed in democracy. He wrote in Two Treatises on Government Men being . . . by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be . . . subjected to the political power of another without his own consent. . . . To protect natural rights governments are established. . . . Since men hope to preserve their property by establishing a government, they will not want that government to destroy their objectives. When legislators try to destroy or take away the property of the people, or try to reduce them to slave ry, they regularise themselves into a state of war with the people who can then refuse to obey laws. If the governments did as Locke proposes there would be so many revolts about little things, that nothing would ever get done. overly when Locke states no one can be subjected to the political power of another without his own consent that is untrue. If the majority of a population votes for someone to be put into power, the smaller portion of the population that voted against that person will, in fact, become subjected to the political power of another without his own consent. Baron de Montesquieu wrote in The Spirit of Laws Although the forms of state-monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy- were united in English government, the powers of government were separated from one another. Therecan be no liberty where the executive, legislative, and judicial powers are united in one person or body of persons, because such concentration is bound to result in arbitrary despotism.What Montesqui eu is saying is that if there were separate powers, there would be liberty. That may be true, but with one absolute monarch the government would be more effective. Everything would get done faster. Both Absolute and Democratic forms of government were effective in their own ways, but Absolutism was the most effective during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe. Absolutism brought on faster solutions to problems. It also was in the best interest of the whole country, and kept the needs of the state first. It kept everything in order, and raised little questions from the people. Overall absolutism was the most suitable government for Europe at this time.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
We reprimand our daughters for being bossy and praise our sons for showing such assertiveness. These were the sentiments expressed during Sheryl Sandburg book advance tour in early 2013. Mrs Sandberg is largely accepted as adept of the most successful female businessperson in modern society. During her many lectures and schoolman interviews she essentially cited her success as the result of going against the gender norm for women. Although specifically referring to the business populace, does Sheryl bear a point? Are we reinforcing gender roles in the words we promote and discourage our children to use?It is largely accepted crosswise both linguistic and psychology fields that girls develop their language skill in understands, quantity, quality and range of vocabulary acquired at an earlier age and faster rate than their male counterparts.A very recent study by Rikard Bauman in 2010 (Stockholm University Press) explored vocabulary growth and language production in pre-school c hildren. It is suggested that at 22 months girls have a more(prenominal) than extensive vocabulary than boys due to capacity differences however, at 34 months such a pattern can non be raise. Furthermore it is suggested that gender affects language production in the sense that male and female speakers will like to produce words that argon associated with their cultures definition of masculinity and womanhood.The study on vocabulary growth is based on the assumption that TTR (type/ minimum ratio) reflects vocabulary size and it proves that, at 22 months, girls have a more extensive vocabulary than boys however, at 34 months such a pattern is less(prenominal) obvious, if any conclusion can be drawn it is that boys have a slightly larger vocabulary than girls. The study on language production is rivet on verb production and it shows that boys andgirls prefer verbs that argon associated with common stereotypes of masculinity and femininity.It seems that these gender distinctions ar e not unique to the English language or the Western world as Found when examining the Japanese language. according to Eleanor Harz Jorden, when breeding language in Japan children learn that there are some words and some grammatic constructions that are associated explicitly with men or boys, while others are associated with women or girls. Such differences are sometimes called gendered language. In Japanese, address patterns associated with women are referred to as onna kotoba (womens words) or joseigo , womens language).In general, the words and diction patterns associated with men are seen as rough, vulgar, or abrupt, while those associated with women are considered more courtly, more deferential, or softer. Some linguists consider the rough/soft continuum more accurate than the male/female continuum. For example, Eleanor Harz Jorden in Japanese The Spoken Language refers to the styles as dull/gentle, rather than male/female. There are no gender differences in written Japan ese (except in quoted bringing), and almost no differences in polite speech (teineigo), since males take on softer speech, except for the fact that women may be more likely to use polite speech in the first place.The word onnarashii , which is ordinarily translated as ladylike or feminine, refers to the behaviour expected of a typical Japanese woman. As well as behaving in particular ways, being onnarashii doer conforming to particular styles of speech. Some of the features of womens speech include speaking in a higher register, using more polite forms and using polite speech or honorifics in more situations, and referring to themselves and those they address more formally. Some linguistic features commonly associated with women include omission of the copula da, the use of personal pronouns such as watashi or atashi among others, use of feminine sentence-final particles such as wa, na no, kashira, and mashoo, and the more frequent use of the honorific prefixes o and go.Accordi ng to Katsue Akiba Reynolds, ladylike speech is instrumental in keeping Japanese women in traditional roles and reflects Japanese societys concept of the difference between women and men.4 For example, there is the potential for scrap for women in the workplace in that, to be onnarashii, a woman must speak politely, submissively and humbly, yet to command respect as a superior, she must be assertive, self-assured, and direct, even when dealing with male subordinates. Actual language used by Japanese-speaking women differs from these sentimentls. Such onnarashii speech is a norm that institutions such as education and media encourage women to adopt. Similarly, these forms may be prescribed for women learners by Japanese textbooks and other materials.There are, however various deviations from these norms in parley. Although Japanese women may not follow the gender norm in speech, some linguistic studies indicate that Japanese women tend to use more honorific language than men do, which reinforces the idea of onnarashii and traditional gender roles.5 Traditional characteristics of Japanese mens speech editJust as there are modes of speaking and behaviour that are considered in and of itself feminine, there are in addition those that are considered intrinsically masculine. In speech, being otokorashii (manly or masculine) means speaking in a rase register, using fewer polite forms and using them in fewer situations, and using intrinsically masculine words.Research on Japanese mens speech shows greater use of neutral forms, forms not strongly associated with masculine or feminine speech, than is seen in Japanese womens speech. Scholars argue that men use typically masculine forms to assert their own authority and knowledge of themselves. Some studies of conversation between Japanese men and women show neither gender taking a more dominant position in interaction. Men, however, tend to show a self-oriented conversation style, telling stories and expressing th eir expertise on topics being discussed, than is typical of women in these studies.Gender differences in modern society - As women gain an increasing leadership role in Japanese society, notions of onnarashisa and otokorashisa, that is, what is deemed appropriate behaviour for men and women, have evolved over time. Although comparatively more extreme movements call for the elimination of gender differences in the Japanese language (gender-neutral language), convergence in usage is considered unlikely and may not even be desirable. Instead, trends in actual usage indicate that women are feeling more comfortable using traditional characteristics of female speech (such as wa) while still maintaining an assertive attitude on par with men. In other words, there is a gradual decoupling of language forms and traditional ethnical expectations.Although the characteristics of Japanese male speech have been largely unaffected, there has been an increasing sensitivity regarding certain usages ( such as changing the terms used to refer to come on women -chan) that may be considered offensive. Regional dialect may often play a role in the expression and perception masculinity or femininity of speech in Japanese. Another recent phenomenon influencing established femininity in speech is the popularity of Okama, very feminine men as popular Geinoujin (television personalities). While quirkiness and transgenderism is still a fairly taboo subject in Japan, lesbians with male traits, or cross-dressers, are referred to as onabe or tachi. Problems for Japanese learners editWithout the proper instruction by fluent Japanese speakers and/or teachers, non-native persons risk learning and expressing themselves inappropriately to native Japanese. Compounding the difficulty of language acquisition, formal instruction may emphasise learning the polite forms of expression (that favour female students) while glossing over claimal expression (that favour male students) and honorifics (disti nguishes natives from foreigners).It is important for non-natives to be instructed by members of the same devolve on or be aware that mere mimicry may not have the expected results. In addition to the use of pronouns to refer to oneself and others, the use of titles also is strongly influenced by gender-based overtones and is another source of potential problems for the non-native speaker. The situation is further complicated by regional variation. For example, in many regions of Japan it is common for senior men to refer to themselves as boku or older women to refer to themselves as ore.How does this relate to language spoken in the Western world? Opinion is, as is often the case, divided.AGAINST1) other major influencesMahsa Saligheh Revisiting Age and GenderInfluence in Second Language Acquisition 2012 states, There is no doubt that language acquisition process is a complex process which involves several factors, and that this process is highly influenced due to plasticity of the intelligence. Furthermore, the types of memory systems involved in females and males are also have a important role that makes the genders distinct. The researchers claim, age and gender, are among the factors that run in parallel with other factors that deeply influence language acquisition process such as motivation, personality, styles, strategies, gender and age.The present study attempts to investigate the last two factors age and gender. Given the importance placed on the role on age and gender, the researchers hold they are not the necessary conditions for second language acquisition. However, the writers claim that genetically there are some benefits that can be reaped for those who begin L2 acquisition early. Furthermore, both males and females are equipped with some predetermined tendencies that would be helpful for them to acquire some aspects of language much faster and easier.2) biological basisMar. 5, 2008 Although researchers have long concur that girls have s uperior language abilities than boys, until now no one has clearly proposed a biological basis that may account for their differences.For the first time and in unambiguous findings researchers from Northwestern University and the University of Haifa show both that, areas of the brain associated with language work harder in girls than in boys during language tasks, and that boys and girls rely on different parts of the brain when performing these tasks. Our findings which suggest that language processing is more sensory in boys and more abstract in girls could have major implications for teaching children and even provide support for advocates of single sex classrooms, said Douglas D. Burman, research associate in Northwesterns Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication SciencesThe researchers measured brain action at law (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 31 boys and in 31 girls aged 9 to 15 as they performed spelling and writing language tasks. The tas ks were delivered in two sensory modalities visual and auditory. When visually presented, the children read certain words without hearing them. Presented in an auditory mode, they heard words aloud but did not see them. Using a complex statistical model, Burman and Pepper accounted for differences associated with age, gender, type of linguistic judgment, performance accuracy and the method (written or spoken) in which words were presented. The researchers found that girls still showed significantly greater activation in language areas of the brain than boys.The information in the tasks got with to girls language areas of the brain (areas associated with abstract thinking through language). And their performance accuracy correlated with the degree of activation in some of these language areas. To their astonishment, however, this was not the case for boys. Boys accurate performance when learning words depended on how hard visual areas of the brain worked. In hearing words, boys pe rformance depended on how hard auditory areas of the brain worked. If that pattern extends to language processing that occurs in the classroom, it could inform teaching and testing methods.Given boys sensory approach, boys might be more effectively evaluated on knowledge gained from lectures via oral tests and on knowledge gained by reading via written tests. For girls, whose language processing appears more abstract in approach, these different testing methods would appear unnecessary. One possibility is that boys have some kind of embarrass in their sensory processes that can hold up visual or auditory information and keep it from being fed into the language areas of the brain, Burman said.This could result simply from girls developing faster than boys, in which case the differences between the sexes might thaw by adulthood. Or, an alternative explanation is that boys create visual and auditory associations such that meanings associated with a word are brought to mind simply fr om seeing or hearing the word. While the second explanation puts males at a disadvantage in more abstract language function, those kinds of sensory associations may have provided an evolutionary advantage for primitive men whose survival required them to quickly recognise danger-associated sights and sounds.If the pattern of females relying on an abstract language network and of males relying on sensory areas of the brain extends into adulthood (a still unresolved question) it could explain why women often provide more place setting and abstract representation than men. Ask a woman for directions and you may hear something like Turn left on Main Street, go one cloture past the drug store, and then turn right, where theres a flower shop on one corner and a cafe across the street. Such information-laden directions may be helpful for women because all information is relevant to the abstract concept of where to turn however, men may require only one cue and be distracted by additional information.ConclusionAlongside most if not all empirical and theoretical evidence involving human beings it is impracticable to make concrete and definite conclusions. Having extrapolated the information the most obvious conclusion can only deduceIs this only evident in childhood, does the distinction disappear by adulthood or was Sandberg right in stating that the division in language between the sexes continues through life.ReferencesBurman is primary author of Sex Differences in skittish Processing of Language Among Children. Co-authored by James R. Booth (Northwestern University) and Tali Bitan (University of Haifa).Jorden, Eleanor Harz Noda, Mari (1987). Japanese The Spoken Language. New Haven Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03834-7.Siegal, Meryl Okamoto, Shigeko (2003). Toward reconceptualizing the teaching and learning of gendered speech styles in Japanese as a Foreign Language. Japanese Language and Literature 37 (1) 4966. Retrieved 2013-4-26.Kazuko, Ashizawa (1998 ). Mangajins Basic Japanese Through Comics.Weatherhill. ISBN 0-8348-0452-2.Reynolds, Katsue Akiba (1990). Female Speakers of Japanese in Transition. Aspects of Japanese Womens Language (Tokyo Kurosio).Tanaka, Lidia (2004). Gender, Language and Culture A Study of Japanese Television Interview Discourse. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 978-90-272-3079-9.Sreetharan, Cindi Sturtz (2004). Students, sarariiman (pl.), and seniors Japanese mens use of manly speech register. Language in Society 33 (01). doi10.1017/S0047404504031045. ISSN 0047-4045. Itakura, Hiroko Tsui, Amy B. M. (2004). Gender and conversational dominance in Japanese conversation. Language in Society 33 (02). doi10.1017/S0047404504332033. ISSN 0047-4045.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Kelsey Schmidt English Noon Forum Report The second noon meeting place I attended was called My Plate and was intimately making kempt choices in meals or food we choose in college. A dietician, Rachel Pinos, from Hyvee was in that location to give us the presentation. She talked about how extremely important it is to down healthy in college. She discussed how kids are away from home for the first time and dont have moms home cooked meals, so they wont choose the right servings of each food, simply because they dont know how.Others will get stressed easily in college over studies or relationship issues and will eat unhealthy foods to make themselves feel better. Rachel showed us a normal plate with an example of the servings of each type of food we should have. She tell we needed a type of grain, fruit, vegetable, and source of protein. She discussed balancing calories in foods, what foods to increase, and what foods to decrease. She sent us back with her business card, a sheet over the 10 tips for healthy meals, and a packet with all of the slides she covered in her presentation.I also liked this noon forum, because eating right is another factor that college students seem to ignore. in that respect are many circumstances in which college students make the wrong choice in eating unhealthy foods. Whether they are too busy or tally behind and dont take the time to eat, overload on sugars and desserts to overcome stresses, or dont get the right amount of fruits and vegetable, there are many times when kids our age dont eat healthy meals.I think this is a subject that I could personally break on myself. I need to force myself to have a type of vegetable, fruit, grain, and protein at every meal without overloading on one or another. This noon forum was very informative and will be extremely helpful to me while in college and in the future when planning meals for myself or a possible family.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
In 1963 an internal memorandum issued at the Stanford Research Institute used the term stakeholders for the first time and defined the word as those groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist(Boundless, paragraph1). Now it generally includes anyone who has an interest or stake in a art or entity. There ar two types of stakeholders internal stakeholders, those within an organization that strike an interest in the business, and external stakeholders, those with an interest in the business outside of an organization. Internal stakeholders include owners, employees, managers, and stockholders, those who argon directly affected by the success or failure of a business decisions. The owners and stockholders are the ones who have the most to gain or lose depending on how the business fares in the market. Theyre the ones who put their money into an idea to create the business and should it fail, theyd lose that investment.The managers and employees, similarly, would lose benefits, rewards, or even their jobs completely should it fail. Since these have the most to lose, theyre the one who work the hardest to make sure the business succeeds. External stakeholders, customers, creditors, suppliers, the government, etc., are also affected by the success of a business. If the business is doing well, the customer is able to get good quality products and/or services at sensible prices, creditors get paid back the loan they gave the business, and suppliers victuals sell their products to the business, thus keeping them in business as well. When the business is up and running, stakeholders pick up to collaborate and each plays their own part with each other to keep the business successful.The owners and creditors need to supply the financial backing, the employees need to sell the products or services to the consumers with excellent customer service, the suppliers need to distribute and deliver their products promptly and professionally, and the cust omers need to continue to buy the products or services while providing constructive feedback. When these stakeholders interact without confusion or miscommunication, the business runs smoothly and they all gain something from working together. No matter what the business sells or provides, if theres contact with any human being, and there always is, then there are by interpretation stakeholders in the company.Without them, there would be no products or services offered to the consumer and there wouldnt be a business in the first place.SourceBoundless. furrow Stakeholders Internal and External. Boundless Accounting. Boundless, 14 Nov. 2014. Retrieved 19 Jan. 2015 from https//www.boundless.com/accounting/textbooks/boundless-accounting-textbook/introduction-to-accounting-1/overview-of-key-elements-of-the-business-19/business-stakeholders-internal-and-external-117-6595/
Monday, May 20, 2019
Maggie and Wangero (Dee) ar sisters. Maggie still lives with their mother in the family home. Wangero has moved on and lives in the city. Wangero has changed her name from Dee to get more than in touch with her heritage. After years of shunning her African American background, Wangero now wants to embrace it. Wangero is used to getting her way. Her mother has never not given her everything shes asked for. Shes educated, fabriced, and has grown into an attractive young woman. Maggie on the other hand is still living on the farm.She didnt receive the same opportunities as her sister. A fire has left her scargond, more than just physically. She is more introverted then Wangero. Shes not used to getting her way exclusively still walk through life with the expectations of a future. She knows her life testament be servitude to her future husband John Thomas. carriage has just passed her by when it comes to the values that her sister Wangero holds dear. The only things the two have in common are two quilts handed down from generation to generation.The quilts are made from bits of clothing from their ancestors past. Hand sewn these quilts are the fabric of their families history. severally gash of cloth that is sewn in the quilt has a story of its own. Each has its place in the familys long history. This is the common bond between the two. Wangero wants these to try and recoup her woolly history. She has lost her roots. Roots she not so long ago scoffed and pushed aside for a new life, a new culture. Two quilts that she wants to use as a type of her heritage.She wants people to see her heritage. Bits of old cloth sewn together demonstrating her oppressed past. Allowing people to see, she has over come her past. That she is no longer oppressed. In short letter Maggie has lived her familys values. She is part of the familys history its heritage. One day she will add a piece of cloth to the quilts and pass them down to her children. Unlike Wangero she has wor ked and toiled through life. She lives her heritage on a daily basis. Wangero and Maggies mother promised the quilts to Maggie.The quilts are most probably the only thing that Maggie values. Maggie is revolutionize with the fact that Wangero just takes them. Wangero clutches the quilts to her chest with a sense of ownership. Maggie in the tradition of her heritage is willing to let Wangero keep them. She is upset with her siblings selfishness. She knows that the quilts are rightfully hers. She is willing to part with them to allow Wangero to regain her concept of the family heritage. Maggie knows that no matter what Wangero tries she will never truly regain what she has thrown away.The mother tells Wangero that the quilts are Maggies and she may choose other ones but not those quilts. Wangero realizes that her mother prizes Maggies sense of family. She knows that Maggie will add to them and to the familys history. The quilts for Wangero are a symbol of her heritage. Maggie is part of her heritage. She is a piece of fabric in the quilt. Wangero may never be part of the quilt. She shunned her heritage years ago. Works Cited Kennedy, X. J. , Dana Gioia, and Alice Walker. Everyday Use. An Introduction to Fiction. Boston Longman, 2010. 455-61. Print.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
GEORGE REID ANDREWS AFRO-LATIN AMERICA In this paper, I would arguer that the history of USA is intertwined with the issue of Blacks their enslavement and liberty but it has non as to date been focused that this subject has far great impact in Central and Latin the States, thus the greater impact of blacks in Central and Latin America would be the main theme or principle of this paper. This defy, Afro-Latin America by George Reid, is the archetypal act to focus on this side of the African Diaspora. With remarkable acquisition George Reid Andrews has woven the history of raft who came from Africa to South America broadly speaking.He t break aways their path from slavery to freedom and how this in turn left its stamp on the politics, economics and culture of this region. As individuals and as groups they chased the path towards freedom, equality and acquirement of citizenship by being part of the military, political movements, civic bodies, unions, religious activities and in various cultural streams. The book travels through two centuries and should be of interest in all interested in the past, present and future of Latin America. It is one of the best anthropological accounts of this region.The style is gripping with fine statement of experiences, of the good deal of African origin in the former colonies of Spain and Portugal and the stamp of their influence on these split on all walks of life society, economics and culture. While the history of the Blacks is well researched and ably presented in USA, it is not so with Latin America where in that respect is still an air of mystery and vacuum. It is ironical that it should be so considering the fact that it has the highest number of Africans residing here outside the African continent (Fagundes 68-78).The book starts with the stunning statement stark naked Census Shows Hispanics now Even with Blacks, the headline proclaimed. Documenting a profound shift in the racial and social composition o f American Society, the 2000 census of the United States showed that, as a result of the continuing immigration from Latin America during the 1990s the national Hispanic community had grown by to a greater extent than 60%. For the first time ever the countrys 35. 3 million Hispanic residents slightly exceeded the black population of 34. million (Andrews 3). The Blacks and Hispanics are not always distinct groups as is cistronrally thought of. In Latin America blacks comprise a quarter of the population. The heart of the New World African Diaspora (Andrews 3) lies not in the north of the border in USA but in South America. During the slave period ten dollar bill times more Africans came to Spanish and Portuguese America than to USA. By the close of 1900 the former outnumbered the latter by 31 22% of the population in Latin America while it was 12% in USA.With immigration, commerce and tourism ties are getting stronger and hence it is necessary to sketch a history of the Latin Ame rican African Diaspora as distinct from USA African Diaspora. In this book such an attempt has been do. The term Afro-Latin-American made its debut sometime during the 70s. Hitherto it was Afro-Venezuelans, Afro-Cubans etc. Latin America is the cluster of American countries under the rule of Spain or Portugal from 1500 to 1800 (Madrigal 99-108). There are many other people living in this region not only those who pay back come from Africa there are Indians, Whites, Asians etc.But whether as a minority or majority the Black presence is strong in the field of gardening and slavery. Blackness has become synonymous with a lower social status leading to a normal mass culture. The proportion of Blacks fell because of neglect disease and death. Also there was more mobility and mixing in the south unlike the rigidity of the north. Black tended to become whiter with material success the Black became the Pardo or Mulatto. The thought process was to bar them from European ancestry privil eges (Aguiar 299-308). The book is not most the race as defined scientifically but as used socially.It looks at the issue from two angles it delves on the multi racial society of Afro-Latin-America and alike as the single largest group of Africans who had been uprooted from their original homeland. Whatever the shade of black the author uses the term to insinuate to that group whose African ancestry is known and recognized. The previous plantation regions of Latin America were shaped irrevocably by the presence of Africans and their descendants (Andrews 284). Hence to understand what it is like today one has to know about the people who carved it to be what it is now.In reacting to the constraints of slavery on the one hand there were the unadorned violent actions like running away, revolt, theft and attack while on the other there was a slower but more lasting response like negotiating with the masters, taking into hand speed of work, better-hearted to courts, forming famili es and keeping alive African practices (Aguiar 299). Runaway slaves formed communities, black militias and mutual aid societies were formed and the people expressed their feeling through formation of athletic, social and cultural clubs.Soon civic organizations, political parties and new-fashionedspapers made their debut. It all rolled into the formation of civil rights movement. By the end of 1800 slavery had been abolished in Latin America (Halperin 489-495). Chapter one covers the first years of slavery while in chapters four and five the author tries to justify how the colored communities tried to whiten and blacken themselves in trying to find their identity that would be pleasurable to their own community as well as to the Whites against the background of a growing mixed population. Here, there arose a problem.In USA there was a clear cut line dividing the Blacks and Whites. But in Latin America the Afro-Latin people penetrated different layers of society and economy with po litics having an influence. Many of the Blacks were free and could not be bracketed with the salves. Europeans, Native Americans and people from the Asia added to the cocktail to make a mixing of blood rarely seen elsewhere. Thus the purpose of race no longer remained a scientific issue but related to socio-economic factors (Bizumic 871-899). The biggest influence was matt-up in the sphere of culture in dancing, music and religion.Andrew goes into detail saying how initially they were termed as fantastic by the Europeans and then in the 20th century there began a change of attitude when the creative thinker of nationhood took roots. Capoeira, Cndomble and Carnaval are three of the significant cultural expressions that have their roots in the tradition of Africa. There is an be belief that Africa is very much throbbing and alive in these modern cultural renditions. Ironically the Europeans have also taken these on and absorbed them in their psyche. The book focuses on these aspe cts and at the end the ratifier is left with a feeling that more could have been said.Instead of devoting separate chapters on these themes he has disconnected these all through the book. He has focused more on economics and politics. After reading the book there is the feeling that the problems of race are going to be more complex in Latin America than what is going on in USA (Shrestha 113-139). In this sense this book is a good introduction to understand the present to gauge the future. The book however would be rather heavy for the routine commentator but it is great for serious thinkers and scholars. The author details the relationship and effect of the coming of the people of Africa to Latin America.There are detailed notes and bibliography to guide the students. It is ideal for all interested in the race factor and the trans-Atlantic slave trade that happened in this part of the solid ground as distinct from USA. Slavery is distressed in USA but the fact is that it exist ed much earlier in places like Brazil. The book reveals new facts that have so far remained unknown. It will enlighten the reader about the birth of the countries of the western world and the large part the people of African descent had played for it to become what we see today.This book introduces the reader to the history of the Blacks connected with Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Venezuela, Puerto Rica etc. and supports the thesis that the influence of blacks in the South America is far more greater than that of mainland United States. Works cited Aguiar, Gilberto. Effects of demographic and ethnohistorical factors on average heterozygosities of South Amerindians. American ledger of Physical Anthropology, 88. 3, (2000) 299-308. Andrews, George Reid. Afro-Latin America, 1800-2000. NY Oxford University PressUS, 2004. Bizumic, Boris. A cross-cultural investigation into a reconceptualization of ethnocentrism.European Journal of Social Psychology 39. 6, (2009) 871-899. Fagundes, Nelson. Gen etic, geographic, and lingual variation among South American Indians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 117. 1, (2002) 68-78. Halperin, Edward. The poor, the Black, and the allowance accountalized as the source of cadavers. Clinical Anatomy, 20. 5, (2007) 489-495. Madrigal, Leo. Ethnicity, gene flow, and population subdivision in Limon, Costa Rica. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 114. 2, (2001) 99-108. Shrestha, Nanda. Black migration at the margin of freedom. International Journal of Population Geography, 9. 2, (2003) 113-139.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
If you ask anyone, they result give you their opinion, their cypher on state of war. Whether they believe its right hand, its wrong, or if they think it is all based on the business office at hand. Wars live with been going on since the beginning and they be still going on today, but are they macrocosm fought for a purpose? Are they universe fought due to a locating that has arisen? This assay will prove two ethical frameworks and how they apply to the same issue. The ethical issue that will be discussed throughout this essay is that of War, and the frameworks that surround it are Situation Ethics and the Duty-Based Ethics.Situation morals is when a choice is make based on the circumstances at hand. In situation morals there is no right or wrong answer as each circumstance has variant outcomes. Situation ethics rejects prefabricated decisions and prescriptive rules. It teaches that ethical decisions should follow flexible guidelines rather than absolute rules, and be t aken on a effort by case basis. This ethical framework provides so much discussion as each situation that evolves will have a reaction, and the challenge is to choose the least prostituteful or problematic pick it all depends on the situation. The situation ethics surrounding war is if its right to fight against a country. There was recently a situation whether or not it was right for the USA to invade Syria for utilise chemical weapons. The outcome was that the USA did not end up going to war, as it would cause much(prenominal) damage then what has already go oned. AlthoughBarack Obama, the president of the USA, did apprehend the chemical weapons so cases like this did not happen again.Duty-based ethics is when someone does the right affair even though it may cause more harm then good. There are tribe out there who criticize men and women from the defence forces for being killers, but this is not the case, these men and women put their lives on the line so they layabout fi ght for freedom, for those who cant. Duty-based ethics teaches that some acts are right or wrong because of the sorts of things they are, and people have a vocation to act accordingly, regardless of the good or bad consequences that may be produced. Some kinds of action are wrong or right in themselves, regardless of the consequences.. A soldier would have to face duty-based ethics on a regular bases throughout a war, as it is their job to fight and protect people against harm. Ben Roberts-Smith is a prime example, as he put himself on the line by drawing out-of-door the enemy, just so the rest of his unit would survive. That is just one example of many different types of duty-based ethics that would be faced throughout a war.Although situation ethics and duty-based ethics are quite different they both apply to the ethical issue of war. Each framework discussed in the essay applies to war, but situation ethics seems to be the weaker of the two as it is based on what the person thi nks the best outcome will be in that situation rather then, duty-based ethics which is what the right thing is to do at that implication in time. Duty-based ethics is definitely the one that relates best to the issue of war, as it is a soldiers job to do what is right, at the moment the issue arises.Throughout this essay the ethical issue of war was discussed based on the ethical frameworks that surround it, which are situation ethics and duty-based ethics. The framework that proves to be the more applicable comparison to the issue of war is duty-based ethics, because they are decisions made based on the right thing to do.BibliographyBBC. Duty-Based Ethics. BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. .BBC. Situation Ethics. BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. .Whittaker, Matt. Soldier in Afghanistan. 2011. Afghanistan. Http//static.guim.co.uk/. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. .