Monday, September 30, 2019
Ella Baker embodies the theme of strength in the face of adversity in Joanne GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Ella Baker: Freedom Bound. Ella Baker comes from a long line of strong women who taught her to stand up for what she felt was good and right. As Ella Baker encounters racial discord in the twentieth century, she draws up on the strength of her mother, her grandmother and her aunts. She also remembers the strength that was passed down from her grandfather and uncle. As a result of her great strength she is able to teach others about nurturing equality among all people. Ella Baker spent her adult years organizing people to fight for equality but this fight wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t always easy. Ella Baker was a black woman facing all the struggles that black people went through prior to and just after the Civil Rights Movement. She can be compared to Martin Luther King Jr. because of her tenaciousness and unwillingness to give up the fight. However, Baker faced gender discrimination as well which only added to her struggles but also encouraged her to continue to use the strength that her ancestors passed down to her. Ella Baker faced great resistance from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference headed by Martin Luther King Jr. because she was a woman and men didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care for taking advice from women. In this way, Ella Baker faced a fight for racial rights as well as gender rights. Ella Baker was responsible for organizing ordinary people to fight for equality. She is credited with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) which mobilized ordinary people to join the Civil Right fight despite the challenges that they faced. Throughout her activist activities and numerous speeches, she urged ordinary people to find the strength to identify one thing that needed changing and work on it a little at a time. She emphasized to crowds that each person had something to give and these little bits could add up to huge changes. Ella BakerÃ¢â¬â¢s most important contribution to the world was her untiring dedication to the Civil Rights movement. Drawing upon the strength that her family members instilled in her gave her the power to continue the fight even when times were tough. She was one of the pioneers of the Civil Rights Movement and GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s book details her great contributions. One important characteristic that gave Ella Baker so much of her strength was her ability to work towards equality without calling attention to herself. Baker didnÃ¢â¬â¢t focus on the work of individuals. Instead, she focused on the great things that could be accomplished when people worked together to make changes. As a result, Baker was often at odds with other (primarily male) civil rights activists because she was more focused on getting things done than reveling in the glory of accomplishment. GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s inclusion of primary and secondary sources only lends to the credibility of strength that she presents in her book. African American people have relied on songs and rhymes throughout history in order to gain strength during struggles. GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s inclusion of several of these short songs shows just how important strength was to Ella Baker and the many avenues she used to draw upon the strength of her family members. GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s use of personal remembrances of Ella Baker goes further to show her character and depth of her strength in her constant battle to gain equality for all people. If these accounts were not included in the book, the theme of strength wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be displayed as well as Grant was able to show. The use of primary and secondary sources give further evidence about the person that Ella Baker was and allow readers to gain a true picture of the kind of person that Ella Baker really was. Throughout the book, Ella Baker demonstrated her Ã¢â¬Å"belief in the ability of people to take control of their lives and lead themselves. Ã¢â¬ Joanne Grant realized the importance of telling the world about Ella Baker. Grant had first hand experience with the work of Ella Baker and the important contributions she made to the Civil Rights Movement. Grant witnessed BakerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to set herself apart in order to build upon inner strength to find oneÃ¢â¬â¢s path in life. Ella Baker was no stranger to resistance based on both her race and her gender and Grant knew that her story needed to be told so her name could be associated with the great work that was done throughout the Civil Rights Movement. The role of black women is underrepresented in non fiction and Grant took it upon herself to share her opinion of Ella Baker with readers. Ella Baker: Freedom Bound is a book that will open the eyes of readers learning about the Civil Rights. It will show the struggle that African Americans went through to gain equality but also the struggle that women went through. Grant paints a vivid picture of the strength that Ella Baker had despite constant challenges to keep her from reaching her goals. This book emphasizes that strength is necessary when one is fighting such an important battle. Ella Baker becomes the model of persistence through her dedication to equality and her willingness to keep fighting no matter what. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let men or white people keep her from working towards her vision of equal rights. This book is highly recommended to those who wish to gain a clear but different perspective on what it was like to be an activist during the Civil Rights Movement fighting for both racial and gender equality. Grant, Joanne. Ã¢â¬Å"Ella Baker: Freedom Bound. 1998. 17 Nov 2008 . Hamilton, Grace Towns & Robinson, Ruby Doris Smith. Ã¢â¬Å"Book excerpts: Three womenÃ¢â¬â¢s voices from the annals of the civil rights struggle. Ã¢â¬ The New Crisis April: 1. Omatseye, Sam. Ã¢â¬Å"Ella Baker: A Civil Rights Angel. Ã¢â¬ Urban Spectrum. 2006. 17 Nov 2008 .
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The Article on Learning Disability provided by Psychology Today details the various dimensions of learning disability which thrusts on the following: its definition, symptoms, causes, and treatment. To start off, learning disability refers to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s difficulty of translating to their brain what their visual and auditory senses produce. The symptoms of this disorder are categorized into the following: Ã¢â¬Å"language disorders, developmental speech disorders, academic abilities disordersÃ¢â¬ , and the other category which includes certain coordination disorders and learning handicaps not covered by the previous terms. There is no single concrete explanation to why this disorder has developed but several theories accounted several factors such as errors in fetal brain development, genetic, use of alcohol and drugs, problems during pregnancy, and toxins in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s environment. All of these factors contribute to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the existence of such kind of disorder. Several steps have been taken to minimize the adverse effects of this learning disorder such as medication and therapy (MedicineNet Inc, 2002). From a psychological standpoint, I appreciate the various theoretical offerings on the causes of learning disorder of this article. However, I believe that one of the important dichotomies in psychology was underrated by this work, i.e. the genetic vs. environment consideration. Although genetic factors complemented by the cellular basis of learning were considered, the social environment of the child definitely plays a role here as well. This article should have explored on this aspect too. Psychological studies, indeed, have shown that both genes and environment are major determinants of many major human processes (Smith et al., 2003). In addition, the socialization process goes with it too. Although this article is mainly about learning disabilities, the inclusion of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, though spurious for this matter, is a beneficial one. It was able to present how learning disability becomes an inevitable consequence of the presence of ADHD. Further, it goes to show several remedial processes that one may undergo to defeat the effects of ADHD and learning disorder Ã¢â¬â such as medication, therapy, and educational options. The social impact of learning disorder was also mentioned in this article, which is a valuable aspect to look on. Children who suffer from this disorder also suffer from frustration and low self-esteem. Indeed, this is serious matter. The good thing is that several laws have been passed in relation to this problem. First, children with this disorder are guaranteed of free public education which is intended to respond to their specific needs (MedicineNet Inc, 2002). This is supported by a particular stipulation under section 200.2 of Part 2 Regulations of NYS school codes which specifies that an arrangement of special education programs and services for a preschool student with a disability shall be made. This is a very important undertaking in relation to the development of children with learning disorder (New York State Education Website, 2005). This regulation acknowledges the differences of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning development and gives special focus and treatment on children with deficiency on this. How valuable is this if you would ask me? Very much as it goes to show that the state moves toward the enrichment of every member of the society and further, this move minimizes the inequality set forth by this kind of disorder. This claim can is substantiated by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 which ensures equal job opportunity among people with learning disorder. This also orders employers to make reasonable accommodations to workers with this disorder (MedicineNet Inc, 2002). The importance of parental and academic factors in the detection of learning disorder, which was highlighted in the article, can also be seen on the Individual evaluation and reevaluation stipulation under 200.4 which states that developmental and educational information of the student must be gathered plus a physical examination, observation of the student in the educational placement, and a social history are all required (New York State Education Website, 2005). The need for social history underscores the importance of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s social environment as a determinant of LD, which is concurrent with the previous point that I have raised. Second, the importance of parental role was accounted for in this stipulation. The information gathered from the parent is required in the evaluation of students with learning disability. In conclusion, learning disability is as crucial as how we perceive it to be. It affects an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s normal functioning; and worse, it affects the attainment of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fullest potential. But on a lighter note, several measures have been formulated. Thus, the partnership of parents, teachers, and the state is an important element in assisting children with learning disorder. Further, this partnership has the capacity to help these children in attaining their precious little dreams. REFERENCES New York State Education Website (2005). Regulation of the Commissioner of EducationPart 200- StudentsÃ with Disabilities. Retrieved October 27, 2006 from Smith, E.E. et al. (2003). Atkinson & HilgardÃ¢â¬â¢s Introduction to Psychology 14th edition. Australia: Thomson & Wadsworth.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Please be sure that you answer in complete sentences using quotes from the text to support your responses. After reading Section 1: 1. What role does Hrothgar play in the epic? -The role that Hrothgar played in the epic was the role of the king. 2. Who/what is causing so much grief in HrothgarÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom? -Grendel, the monster, was causing a lot of grief in the kingdom. Ã¢â¬Å"How Grendel wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t about to stop, or pay damages.Ã¢â¬ 3. How many years has this battle with Grendel been going on? -The battle with Grendel had been going for twelve years. 4. What attempts have been made to rid the land of this beast? -The council attempted to plan many attacks against Grendel. Ã¢â¬Å"They even went to heathen temples, worshipped idols, and called to the Devil for help.Ã¢â¬ After reading Section 2: 1. What causes Beowulf to want to help Hrothgar? How does he get there, and how many men accompany him? -Beowulf hears of the terrors of Grendel and wanted to help the king. Ã¢â¬Å"So the good Geat chose the bravest warriors, fourteen of them, and that crafty sailor led them to the landÃ¢â¬â¢s brim,to the ship.Ã¢â¬ 2. Why does HrothgarÃ¢â¬â¢s soldier question Beowulf about his lineage? -HrothgarÃ¢â¬â¢s soldier questions BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s lineage because he is simply guarding his kingdom. Ã¢â¬Å"I wish to know your lineage now so I know you are not spies going into the land of the Danes.Ã¢â¬ 3. Why is this important to that time period? -It is important because at this time there were spies who would come to kingdoms. So they do not have any traitors coming into the kingdom. 4. Do you see any examples of alliteration or kennings? -Yes you do see examples of alliteration or kennings. An example is the Ã¢â¬Å"Lord of the Seamen.Ã¢â¬ .
Friday, September 27, 2019
Email - Essay Example The survey is an illustration of a mechanism that can be used in profiling employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s whit the highest level of job satisfaction thus giving the highest possible performance boosting a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity (Kuballa 2007). Employees who are satisfied with their job are less likely to leave the organization. This makes it easy for companies to retain talent in the current age where having skilled employees is being used as a source of competitive advantage (Fields 2002). Tenure is examined in this report because it is a crucial aspect in ensuring employees satisfaction. For employees to perform their duties satisfactorily, they should feel that their job is secure and that they cannot be fired any time. Age is also an important aspect in understanding the needs of the employees. If the highest percentage of the employees is of the age 50 and above, they would perform better if they were offered good pension plans and retirement benefits. Workers of the age 18 to 40 are more concerned on getting benefits such as health insurance and job tenure. Gender is also crucial. This is because increase in diversity in the workplace is crucial as it has been observed that it increases workers performance. Ensuring that there is gender balance in the workplace is important in order to promote better performance and good decision making (Cook 2008). This is because people from diverse groups are able to give their different contribution coming up with many alternative solutions. As have already been started, the size of the sample used in this report is 30 employees. This consisted of 60% males (18/60) and 40% (12/30). Tenure Distribution by Gender: 42% of the males have been in the company for more than 2 years 25 % males have been in the corporation for 2-5 yrs 8% males have been in the company for exactly 5 yrs 50% of the females have been in the company for more than 2 yrs 24% of the females have been in the company for 2-5 yrs 4% of the females have been i n the company for more than 5 yrs 20% of the employees interviewed were in the human resource department, 15% came from the administration department, and 30% was from the sales department, 25% from the direct production department. The extrinsic value by gender is measures on a scale of 1-7 with the females taking the value of 5.407 and the males 5.318. The probability that the individual chosen for this survey is between the age of 16-21 is 0.20. The probability that an individual job satisfaction is 5.2 or lower is 0.40. The probability that a person chosen for this survey is from the human resource department and is a female is 0.23. The probability that the individual will be a salaried employee whose intrinsic satisfaction value is 5 or more is 0.32. Besides the mentioned ways in which a company can use the probabilities above in promoting employees performance, the probabilities mentioned above can be used in several other ways. One way is to check whether the incentive plan and benefits package that the company is implementing in the company is working. The management has the role of understanding which kind of motivation work for different employees. According to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of motivation, there are different levels of motivation and it is the work of the management to know which stage of development an employee is in and thus give them incentives that completely satisfies their current needs. For instance, according to the probability he notices that employees on the
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The Theories of Culture - PETA - Essay Example From the moment we were born, until the time of our death, culture is the invisible cloak that gives meaning to our world and gives us a constant self-identity. We are the microcosm of the culture that shaped and is shaping our lives. Although we exhibit our own culture every day through our actions and thinking, it is hard to talk about or explain it because it already seems second-nature to us. For example, Americans celebrate Independence Day to commemorate the end of war and oppression, celebrate Thanksgiving with roasted turkey, and celebrate Halloween with kids going door to door for the Ã¢â¬Å"trick or treatÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â all these are part of the American tradition. Americans are also pro-democracy and will go to a great extent to fight against tyranny. These traditions and beliefs all seem very natural to an average American that most go about them without question or resistance. They are just the way they are, and they represent the status quo. Our culture defines and dominates us as result of a lifetime of socialization through many cultural institutions (Pearce, 1999). Socialization is important for a culture to survive, so it can pass itself from one generation to the next generation. A culture needs to perpetuate itself and preserve the society and its identity, and it does this by conditioning its members that the culture is natural, normal, good and in their best interests (Pearce, 1999). Children are socialized by their parents or caretakers to behave in a way that is pleasing and socially acceptable. At an early age, they are subjected to authority, to control, to conformity, according to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and practices. In the same principle, teenagers follow the same socialization process but modeling from friends and peer groups rather than from parents. Women too have been socialized to act, think and feel as second-class citizens by the generally paternalistic society, although the advent of feminism is slowly changing this.
Testing the effectiveness of the use of value at risk in cases of economic distress - Essay Example With the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢s credit rating on the Standard and PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s being downgraded from triple A (AAA) to double A (AA), this has changed the landscape for various lenders to have to watch more closely, and with a more critical eye, what money they loan out and to whom they are loaning money. This will be discussed more later. The Monte Carlo simulation has a basic formula of Ã¢â¬Å"(b-a)+b.Ã¢â¬ According to the Monte Carlo Simulation (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"[T]he Monte Carlo Analysis technique utilizes the three estimates to repeatedly simulate the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s completion date, while taking into account the statistical likelihood that each activityÃ¢â¬â¢s duration will be somewhere on the continuum between the three estimates. The result of this analysis will [have] X% chance that the project will be complete on or before date YÃ¢â¬ (pgh. 6). The first simulation was conducted on Citibank Corp. bank. Portfolio returns are best when they are diversified. There are a number of wonderful stocks which one can invest in in order to see great returns. The key is to make sure that various percentages of stocks are bought in order to balance out any difficulties so that, if one stock tanks a bit, other stocks will recoup the loss. Supposedly, Standard & PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s 500 Composite Index on income return is 1.01%, while its capital return is 5%--for a total return of 6.01%. Class A shares have a total return of 3.89%. Meanwhile, Lipper Growth and Income Funds Index has a total return of 5.29%. The U.S. economy, this past year, did not see much growth in the first six months of the year. Markets have been adversely affected by the slowdown. Triggered by worries about the U.S. budget deficit, a very high (at least 9.1% nationally) unemployment rate, the European debt crisis, and a decrease of growth in ChinaÃ¢â¬âsuch macroeconomic concerns kept stock markets in turbulence, causing the U.S. stock market to have a volatility index the likes of which have
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Article Critiques on Finance - Essay Example Asian governments, "made sure their farmers, big and small, were able to avail themselves of fertiliser, irrigation and connections to markets". A large part of this credit goes to the Nobel laureate, Norman Borlang, who pioneered the green revolution. In Africa however, governments saw improvements in agriculture technology only as a " means to secure political favour, not the food supply". Hence the renewed interest in Africa is welcome to ensure that the benefits of the green revolution succeed at least at the second attempt. No nation will ever be able to enjoy political and economic stability unless it is self-sufficient in its food supply. Food is important in the developing and least developed countries because buying and selling of food accounts for a major chunk of economic activity. Improvements in the agriculture sector results in economic upliftment at the grass-roots level where it is most needed. The media industry was shocked when in September 2006, Viacom CEO, Tom Freston was sacked and replaced by Philippe Dauman, a corporate lawyer unknown in the media industry. This resulted in a sharp fall in the value of Viacom shares, until Dauman re-assured shareholders that there would be no major policy shifts in the near future.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Cross Cultural Management - Essay Example Organizations all differ in their culture. There are no too organizations with the exact culture. Cultural forms function as the linking mechanism by which networks of understanding develop among employees. The cultural forms shown in the table on pages 293-94 act as a medium for communicating ideologies, values, and norms. Cultural forms enable leaders to transmit messages about desirable culture to influence thinking and ways of behaving. Cultural forms also address the emotional aspects of organizations that are commonly referred to as cohesion or camaraderie. Organizational scholars Janice Beyer and Harrison Trice elaborate on this point: Cultural forms not only aid sense making through the meanings they convey; they also aid the sense making process through the emotional reassurances they provide that help people persist in their coping efforts. Forms provide a concrete anchoring point, even if the meaning they carry are vague and only imperfectly transmitted....Also many cultural forms involve the expression of emotion and, by this venting of emotions, help people to cope with stress.( http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch16.html) Organizational diversity is the mixture of different individuals. Differences such as race, age, gender, religion, and ethnics. Diversity is very important in the attractiveness of an organization. ... Technology is increasing at a rapid pace. The world's technology is set to double in the next seven years. An organization must be technology advanced to be able to keep a competitive advantage over its competition. Many times when upgrades are made in a company employee training is necessary. Communication in an organization is very important for its success. Managers must be able to communicate with their subordinates quickly and effectively. Communication channels need to be a too ways lane. Employee feedback allows management to measure their own success. Employees should feel free to constructively comment and offer creative ideas to managers. Communication can take place in person, over the phone, or electronically. An organization's culture is a very complex and sensitive issue. Companies must develop a culture that appeals both to its employees and customers. The culture of an organization is a resemblance of its personality. Employee and managers will be working together on a daily bases and must get along. Human resource management is somewhat different in the global environment that in the domestic environment. Several factors contribute to this. One factor is the differences in worldwide labor markets. Each country has a different min of workers, labor costs, and companies. Companies can choose the mix of human resources that is best for them. Another factor is differences in worker mobility. Various obstacles make it difficult or impossible to move workers form one country to another. These include physical, economic, legal, and cultural barriers. Still another factor is managerial practices. Different business subcultures choose to manage their resources, including people, in different ways. The more countries in which a company operates, the greater
Monday, September 23, 2019
The effect of coffee and tea on dental erosion - Research Paper Example In order to have a healthy body, one must have clean teeth because they are the most visible internal part of the body. Teeth show up while an individual talks, eats, smiles and yawns. Clean teeth directly boost the confidence of an individual whereas stained teeth are a source of embarrassment for the individual who has them. The individual with clean teeth can socialize more confidently in comparison to an individual who has stained teeth, particularly at a very young age in life. In light of the relation of teeth hygiene with the confidence of an individual, it can be said that cleanliness of teeth is essential for good psychological health of an individual. Healthy psychology is essential for good personality, which is in turn essential for healthy society. Tea and coffee are beverages that are consumed by almost every single member of the society on a daily basis irrespective of age. People generally have a taste for both of them and these beverages are an essential part of the daily meal. In light of the immense consumption of both tea and coffee, it cam be said that this research applies to a vast majority of people in the society. This is a very useful research in that it would make them aware of the negative effects of an everyday beverage on their teeth.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Lloyd Newson and Intertextuality Essay 1986 saw the formation of the physical theatre company known as DV8 Physical Theatre which since its inception until present day has been led by Lloyd Newson (www. dv8. co. uk) . Based in the United Kingdom this company has produced a lot of pieces which have toured internationally and have received awards , they also add to their achievements four award-winning films for television (www. dv8. co. uk) . In this essay I will discuss the intertextuality that can be seen in Dv8 original film The Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men conceived and directed by Lloyd Newson and how Newson approached the piece . Intertextuality can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the complex interrelationship between a text and other texts taken as basic to the creation or interpretation of the textÃ¢â¬ (Wall, 2007:97). Or the ways in which the components of a performance text get meaning on the basis of their relationship with other texts(Jordan , 1992: 257). I this case this will be the way in which the piece makes reference to other material other than what the director and performers thoughts are about Nilsen. Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men is loosely based on Brian MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s book Killing for Company which is the story of Dennis Nilsen a serial killer who lured his victims (all young men ) back to his homes in Cricklewood and Muswell Hill and killed them by chopping their bodies into little pieces and stuffing them down the drain (http://www. ailymail. co. uk). Newson liked to challenge his audience by taking risks in his pieces not only physical risks but risks in his approach and within the piece itself draw form real life -the sociological and psychological- Ã¢â¬Å" for many dance companies it seem risk just means nothing is risked in terms of content and approachÃ¢â¬ ( Lloyd :www. dv8. co. uk) . Newson stresses that as a company they only work on pieces that are motivated and driven by how the central idea affects them, they talk about their own personal experiences before they start to rehearse and set actual choreography, the process of coming up with the final piece is a collaborative process Ã¢â¬Å"by sharing the process the final work become collaborative and the performers get credited accordinglyÃ¢â¬ (www. dv8. co. uk) . The film also draws into homosexuality, at the time homosexuality was still something that people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t talk about widely it was all done behind closed doors . In Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men Newson Ã¢â¬Å"explores the interwoven notions of loneliness, desire and trustÃ¢â¬ (www. dv8. co. uk) . As mentioned earlier at the time of the film homosexuality was seen as somewhat Ã¢â¬Å"tabooÃ¢â¬ Newson draws on societies views and explores if what led Nilsen to his disturbing actions could have been the mere fact that there were already so many negative views place on homosexuality he was lonely in need of company -killing for company- Ã¢â¬Å"societal homophobia often results in tragic consequencesÃ¢â¬ (www. dv8. co. uk) . The film is in black and white this in itself could be seen as an intertext , a photographer by the name of Robert Mapplethorpe famous for his photo called Man in Polyester Suit all his pictures are in black and white most of his work could be described as homoerotic, so this can be seen as intertext from the start the films exploration of homosexuality . Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men starts off at a bar or club just like where Dennis would have picked his victim at this point of the film there is pop music (popular gay culture ) playing , the music used as an intertext , movement at this time is not to the music but influenced by the music . The body language of the performer is that of a hunter seeking its prey (victim) . Then as the piece progresses the music moves from pop to a more slower tonal sound . This is when the piece moves to a more Ã¢â¬Å"intimateÃ¢â¬ space Ã¢â¬â into DennisÃ¢â¬â¢s home-. Looking at the design and setting throughout the piece we can see that there are many deep intertexts , the use of the sculptures being one , sculptures of nude men almost as an objectification of men as if to say this is how men should look like . The costumes the white underwear not something you would have people where as their full costume on stage , and the dull colored shirts and pants worn by the other characters . There are a few scenes don in the bathroom where we see visible pipes relating to the drains where DennisÃ¢â¬â¢s victims body parts were found , this could be an intertext to point out that the body parts in the drain were the reason that Dennis was caught so have the pipes visible in that way shows his one mistake that lead to his arrest. Also Newson uses the bathroom which is a secret place where some of the action takes place this also draws to the gay culture -secretive Ã¢â¬Å"behind closed doorsÃ¢â¬ - . In the film most of the action is not actual Ã¢â¬Å"danceÃ¢â¬ its all realism itÃ¢â¬â¢s realistic everyday moves and gestures Ã¢â¬Å"realist dance can be said to communicate to audiences ,to attempt to reveal the truths of our worldÃ¢â¬ (Wall, 2007:91). In the bathroom scenes there is no dancing there is an exploration of weight and gestures no choreographed movement , the two men also exchange underwear this switching of something personal represents ntimacy (sexual acts) between them . The piece has a strong intertext to the womb in the bathtub the man lies in a fetal position there is also water and at some point he is immersed in it just like in the womb . The bathtub also being where Dennis drowned his victims or mutilated them . The picture of the man in fetal position in the water can be seen as both the beginning (fetus in womb) and the end (drowned by Dennis). Going back to the spacial design we see that besides the visible pipes the roof is not closed off -no ceiling- you can see the planks , when the performer is up on the roof and moving along the planks in an almost sneaky way this draws to secrecy again it also brings some Notre dame themes of people in the rafters sneaking around , bringing us back to the secrecy . Some have argued that in Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men Lloyd Newson portrays homosexuality in a bad way -as dirty and promiscuous- , they say that with this single film he has undone all the hard work done by gay activist in the past to have homosexuality accepted by society. In conclusion Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men is a powerful film digging deep into the action of a serial killer , playing on the intertextual meanings that we as the audience leave with questions about sometimes as viewers we consciously recognize where the style and ways of using style come from and at other times the origin just provides an unconsciously sensed undercurrent (Bazerman, 2001:1). Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men also shows that physical theatre is capable of taking on complex issues without simplifying the subject (www. dv8. co. uk).
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Comparing societies with reference to social organisation Discuss the similarities and differences between any TWO societies. In your answer, make reference to the role of cultures, norms, values and inequality in social organisation. The twentieth century is packed full of History. The revolution that hit Russia in 1917 is arguably one of the most economic interpretations of History in the twentieth century. This led to one of the first and definitely the biggest Communist state the world has ever seen. Spanning over Seventy years the Russian revolution had a huge impact on world affairs. This essay will look in to the similarities and differences in the norms, values and inequalities of social stratification, between Communist Russia and modern day Capitalist Britain. Everyone in Communist Russia was required to have jobs. Children, retired and disabled were the only exceptions. If you did not have a job in Communist Russia you would then be considered a parasite on the proletariat (Jary,D.Jary,J.1995) and could end up in jail for such an offence. Income was not the same: However, your salary was determined by the nomenklatura government. If you were a factory worker you would be able to achieve a bonus, this was only if you did not question and were a great worker. With your salary you were unable to buy land. The land was and maybe still is owned by the state. (Oxley,P.2001) In modern day Capitalist Britain we have cultural diversity, and perceive things in an ethnocentric way. Not everyone in modern day Capitalist Britain is required to work. We have a very beneficial welfare state (Jary,D.Jary,D.1995) which looks after every member of society not just the people who cannot work. Also if Britons wanted to buy land they could do such a thing. Saunders (1990) sees the old class divisions based on work becoming less and less relevant. For Saunders, what you do with your money is more significant than how you get it. (Saunders, P.1990 cited in Moore, S.2001) In Modern day Capitalist Britain over the past few years, people from all types of heritage have had greater access to higher education through a meritocratic society. Because of this, wealth distribution is altering and social mobility is occurring. The British class system is still very much in tact although in a more subconscious way. The British believe the playing field has levelled, but British still pigeon hole people dependent on class. (www.kwintessential.co.uk). In Communist Russia, despite Marxist-Leninist notions of a classless society, there were a Capitalist ruling class, the nomenklatura, which consisted of party officials and key personnel in the government and other important sectors such as heavy industry. This class enjoyed privileges such as roomy apartments, country dachas, and access to special stores, schools, medical facilities, and recreational sites. The social status of members of the nomenklatura increased as they were promoted to higher positions in the party. (http://www.country-data.com ) Many people in modern day Capitalist Britain believe in the idea of equal educational opportunity. They believe that everybody within the society should attain an equal chance and their educational qualifications should be based on merit, on their ability and effort. If a person is clever and works hard they should do well no matter what his/her social class or background may be. (Haralambos,M.1996) People knew little about the educational system in Communist Russia. After the coup that brought down the Soviet Empire, Russia released many of its secrets including those involving its education. Communist Russia did not let non-Communist teachers teach. They had a huge mission to ensure Communism was drilled in to them at a very early age. (Corin,C.2002 and Fiehn,T.2002) After 1917, Russia based its entire school system on the teachings of German philosopher Karl Marx (1818 1883). Marxism states that one should achieve freedom through giving up the self to benefit the state. This Marxist theory created an unpopular form of government from a democratic point of view; however, it made Communism an efficient educator. (http://www.milford.k12.il.us) Marxists argue that the working class rarely challenge Capitalism. This is because the people who have the control on economy also control the family, education, media and religion in fact all the cultural institutions that are responsible for socialising individuals. Neo Marxist Althusser (1971) argued that the function of those cultural institutions is to maintain and legitimate class inequality. (Althusser,L.1971 cited in Moore,S etal 2001). This is very similar to modern day Capitalist Britain The social structure of Communist Russia was characterized by self-perpetuation and limited mobility. Access to higher education, a prerequisite to social advancement, was steadily constrained in the post-war decades. Moreover, the sluggish economy of that period reduced opportunities for social mobility, thus accentuating differences among social groups and further widening the gap between the nomenklatura and the rest of society. (http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-11420.html 20/10/2010) In modern day Capitalist Britain Social class is an umbrella category. Being of a different class may involve differences in culture, economic circumstances, educational status, dietary preferences, housing conditions, property Ownership and power. There will always be fuzzy edges with people who could be counted in more than one category and people who have encountered social mobility. (http://www.ucel.ac.uk) There are many differences in norms, values and the social structure in Communist Russia and modern day Capitalist Britain. Looking at the impact the nomenklatura government has had on Russia and how that stopped any sort of meritocracy, and in turn they had a sort of ascribed status. If the people of Communist Russia did not work they could have faced a prison sentence. Also it looks at how Karl Marx had a huge impact on Communist Russia. How much affect did it have, as there was no room for non Communist teachers? This was there secondary socialisation and it moulded how the youth of Communist Russia were to think. However it can be seen that social mobility is occurring in modern day Capitalist Britain. The British believe that there is a level playing field however; subconsciously, Britons are still classed individuals. Modern day Britons also believe everyone has a right to equal education opportunities. Evidently, social mobility in modern day Capitalist Britain is occurring. Posing the question, ultimately is there a difference between Communism and Capitalism?
Friday, September 20, 2019
Argumentative Essay on universities lecturing systems Recently, the use of lecturing system in universities is being questioned for its efficiency. The dilemma is that should lecturing system in University be replaced with small classes. Small classes, as described by David Daniels in his article College Lectures: Is Anybody Listening? emphasis on having lesser students in a class. This encourages more interaction between lecturer and students, aiming to build active learners and the enable lectures to be sure of the progress of their students. He also stated that students now are lacking of listening skills meaning that lecturing system is no longer effective for them, showing the need of change to small classes system in educating students. Lecturing system on the other hand is a traditional way of teaching used in tertiary studies. The number of students handled by a lecturer is much more compared to small class system. We should continue using lecturing system as it show more advantages than using small classes in the sense of being more cost effective, building more independent students, decreasing absentees and by being fair in grading students. First, usually the numbers of students in universities are massive which small class system will not be able to fit in all students. However, if lecturing system is replaced by small classes in universities, it would be very costly seeing that more classes need to be opened for lessons to be conducted. An excellent example is more manpower is needed to operate. According to the former president of United States, he states that an average of 1.7 billion dollars is needed to train more lecturers to conduct small classes nationwide yearly (Viadero, 1998). Many universities are lacking of lecturers and using small classes will need the university to hire more lecturers to facilitate lectures. This means universities will have to fork out a lot of money to overcome the shortage of manpower. Electric bills will shoot up too as teaching aid such as projectors and computers as well as air conditioning to keep the temperature in room favorable temperature will need large electric consumption. All these factors will contribute in a larger operating cost. What do universities do to cover the cost? Increasing fees charged on students! This will cause education to be costly and unaffordable for those families earning lower income. The consequence of this issue will be chances of financially poor students getting higher education to be slimmer. Worse though, if the management chooses to hire non experienced part time lecturers to reduce the operating cost, small class will as well be meaningless. Lecturing system will save on this problem as this system enables a lecturer to handle more students. This will also solve the problem for universities where spaces are very limited as a hall will be enough to fit in all students for one lecture. Thus, continue using lecturing system not only provide a more affordable education for students but enable the campus to generate more profit as operating cost is reduced and student intakes are increased due to the better organizing of spa ce. Next, lecturing system will build more independent students. David Daniel claims that small classes enable lecturers know the progress of their students and help them improve. Yet, this situation causes students to rely on lecturers. What are they, the students without their lecturers? Will they be able to survive in the harsh life in work when they are graduated their studies? This is especially an issue among Malaysian students. They tend to blame lecturers for low grades. However, is the problem with the student or education system itself? Malaysian students are introduced to at least 11 years of small classes system before proceeding to pursue their higher education. If this issue occurs, this simply means there is a critical error in the system. Students are used to be spoon-fed with whatever they need to know and not by discovering with their own effort. Demolishing small class students used to have for their higher education will be painful for them but students must start to realize that they are actually responsible for their own studies. The duty of lecturers is just to guide them in tertiary level education. Only then students whom are used to be spoon-fed will be forced to look for additional information from various sources for their subjects. Teaching a man to fish is better than giving him a fish every day. Indirectly, it might shape more knowledgeable student as they will be exposed to irrelevant facts which seems to be not useful in the progress of looking what they want. Who knows if the information is applicable someday? Hence, lecturing system will be able to shape more quality students whom can independently improve themselves in their field of study. Furthermore, lecturing system is useful is decreasing absentees in class. David Daniels proposes that question and answer section in small classes can help to shape more active students. However, is this method applicable to all students? Intrinsic students who do not like to voice out will not feel comfortable being asked and pressured by questions from lecturers. However, these groups of students are being paid most attention by lecturers as they are too quiet and these lead more questions to be directed to them. The discomfort might cause them feel afraid to enter class. In lecturing system quiet students will instead get the sense of security because the large group of student does not allow lecturers to question students individually but as a group instead. The same situation applies to weaker students. Lecturers tend to emphasis their questions on them in small classes. It is true that lecturers are trying to help them as what David Daniels says to improve their analytical skil l, but students at this age are egocentric. How would they feel if they do not know how to answer a question in front of their classmates? They might feel ashamed for the rest of the period and their emotion will keep them away from concentrating. Worse still, they might fear being asked questions again. Involved students might be stressed out and try to escape from the threatening situation. Furthermore, students studying in universities are basically at their teenage age. This is the stage where they are most attracted by the opposite sex psychologically. In lecturing system, a larger crowd provides more targets for them to prey on. Such situation might motivate them to attend class more frequently as they might want to keep a good image in front of someone they are attracted to. Besides, they might work hard in order to get good results to be proud of. Eventually, lecturing system not only decrease absentees rate but lead students to a higher achievement as well. Moving on, lecturers teaching in lecture system are fairer in grading coursework compared to lecturers from small classes. According to David Daniels, small classes allow professors to discover who knows what before final examinations. However, what is the purpose of doing so? Allowing the lecturers to set questions according to what their students know? This will not help the students but give them an illusion of the marks they get. They thought they know a lot from the high grade they achieve but the fact is just the opposite. Since students result reflect on lecturers reputation, we cannot deny that there will be some irresponsible lecturers that would use this way to help students get better grades so they might be proud too. A win-win situation? In lecturing system, lecturers might not know the progress of their students but this enable them to set exam questions based on what students should know and not what students already know. If students did badly in their examination, it serves them right for not studying hard enough. They will eventually learn from their mistake and do better next time. It will always be better than pampering the students by helping them through examinations. Another good example will be the rate of grade inflation. Based on the statistic provided by The New York Times, the rate of grade inflation in private colleges using small class system is 38 percent higher than public colleges using lecturing system. Corresponding to this, we can say that the good relationship built between lecturers and students in small class system affect the judging ability of lecturers to grade fairly. Human are by nature emotional. Philosophically, emotion overrides the rationality part of a human. Thus, very often lecturers gave marks higher than what the student deserves especially for those who are closer and have a better relationship with the lecturer. On the other hand, lecturing system can avoid this situation from happening. The large crowd a l ecturer is handling will build a barrier between the student and lecturer. Saving on the relationship part, lecturer will be able to judge students coursework fairly. The larger number of coursework submitted also enable lecturers to compare the work and give marks accordingly. Therefore, those who really put in effort to do their assignment will deserve a better grade and be motivated to keep on with their hard work. Finally, lecturing system should not be replaced by small class system in universities as it obviously show more advantage by being more cost effective and beneficial to students. However, there are improvements that can be done for the system to be more effective. Universities should make sure hired lecturers are up to certain requirements and are able to facilitate the lesson effectively. While for the problem of student lacking listening skills and concentration as proposed by David Daniels, actions such as giving short breaks at certain time and projecting some short clips featuring jokes from subject of students interest can be taken. This can help to regain students concentration. Based on the reasons proposed, lecturing system is still the better way to be used in universities compared to small class system.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
For the Sisterhood The female praying mantis is notorious in the animal kingdom for her mating habits. It has been observed that occasionally, the female will bite off the head of her mate during copulation. Among the many reasons for this cannibalistic behavior is that the head is an inhibitory center during sexual intercourse. Removing the head increases the drive of the male. As I sat in lecture listening to my Animal Behavior professor elaborate on the peculiar yet fascinating mating habits of the female praying mantis, I saw my male classmates around me squirm in their seats obviously disturbed by what they were hearing. Some of the girls in the room tittered nervously. I could not help smiling. Now there is a woman after my own heart. I often ask myself what I consider an ideal woman. In my mind, an ideal woman is independent, ambitious, self-sufficient. She has no fear of reaching for what may seem unattainable. Instead, she thrives on the challenge. Looking around, I see there are plenty of women who fit that mold. The US government has more high ranking women in office today than it has had at any other time in history. Compared to even just ten years ago, women are a visible force in the corporate world. The times have yielded us highly accomplished and highly successful women professors, writers, policewomen, musicians, doctors, lawyers. The list goes on and on. However, even with all the progress that has been made for women in the past few decades, there is undeniably a glass ceiling for women. Gender division of labor exists. Despite these progressive times, society still imposes expectations on women in all aspects of life, and women have not yet completely broken out ... ...ling will shatter. Women will scatter and fearlessly run rampant throughout the previously predominantly male society. We will not bite off the heads of our male counterparts like the female praying mantis. We are, after all, not insects. We will simply push men aside and assume those roles which we women are best suited for in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Women will take a stronger hold of their position in relationships, and this will be generally accepted. Men and women will work side by side in professional settings for equal pay and for equal amounts of respect. Old stereotypes of women will disintegrate because historically traditional roles are exactly that Ã¢â¬â historical and traditional. Such changes will take time. Schools of thought cannot be altered overnight. However, until that day comes, we will continue to persevere and fight for our place in this world.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Introduction- Fashion is richly embedded in the history and culture in France. The country is the home of many famous designers, and is credited with creating the concepts haute couture and prÃ ªt-Ã -porter; two core segments of the fashion industry. Today Paris, Milan, London, and New York are the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ fashion capitals in the world. While France is well known to be the oldest fashion empire in the world, with expansion of the industry, is it still considered the leader? 1) History of Fashion in France A quote by American poet, Allen Ginsberg says, Ã¢â¬Å"You canÃ¢â¬â¢t escape the past in Paris, and yet whatÃ¢â¬â¢s so wonderful about it is that the past and present intermingle so intangibly that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to burden.Ã¢â¬ In order to truly understand the large role that fashion plays in a culture where the past is such a large part of the present, one must learn about its deep history and evolution. The first time clothing was seen as more than a practicality, and closer to a status symbol was during the reign of King Louis XIV. King Louis XIV, also known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon and ruled as King of France and the Kingdom of Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. He was known for adorning himself in silk, diamonds, and artisanal shoes and jackets (Fashion and Power). He used these items of luxury to control and express his power to France, its residents, and the rest of Europe. Shortly after Louis XIVÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Louis XVI came into power. King Louis XVIÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Marie Antoinette was also a pioneer in the French fashion culture. As the Queen of France from 1774-1792, her life was full of extravagance and luxury and she wanted her fashion to be representative of her lifestyle. In fact, she w... ...businesses reviewed annually to preserve the reputation of such a prestigious association. Chambre syndicale Du PrÃ ªt-Ã -porter des Couturiers et des CrÃ ©ateurs de Mode is a group made up of haute couture houses and fashion designers who design womenÃ¢â¬â¢s ready-to-wear fashion, and the Chambre syndicale de la Mode Masculine is a group exclusively for menÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion. Since 1935 the FÃ ©dÃ ©rationÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters have been located at 100 rue de Faubourg Saint HonorÃ © in ParisÃ¢â¬â¢s 8 arrondissement; in the heart of the city where it all began. Combined, the three trade organizations have over 100 corporate members. A unique quality of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture and the Chambre syndicale Du PrÃ ªt-Ã -porter des Couturiers et des CrÃ ©ateurs de Mode, is that it accepts international members as well. This is said to reflect the quickly expanding globalization of the industry. Essay -- Introduction- Fashion is richly embedded in the history and culture in France. The country is the home of many famous designers, and is credited with creating the concepts haute couture and prÃ ªt-Ã -porter; two core segments of the fashion industry. Today Paris, Milan, London, and New York are the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ fashion capitals in the world. While France is well known to be the oldest fashion empire in the world, with expansion of the industry, is it still considered the leader? 1) History of Fashion in France A quote by American poet, Allen Ginsberg says, Ã¢â¬Å"You canÃ¢â¬â¢t escape the past in Paris, and yet whatÃ¢â¬â¢s so wonderful about it is that the past and present intermingle so intangibly that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to burden.Ã¢â¬ In order to truly understand the large role that fashion plays in a culture where the past is such a large part of the present, one must learn about its deep history and evolution. The first time clothing was seen as more than a practicality, and closer to a status symbol was during the reign of King Louis XIV. King Louis XIV, also known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon and ruled as King of France and the Kingdom of Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. He was known for adorning himself in silk, diamonds, and artisanal shoes and jackets (Fashion and Power). He used these items of luxury to control and express his power to France, its residents, and the rest of Europe. Shortly after Louis XIVÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Louis XVI came into power. King Louis XVIÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Marie Antoinette was also a pioneer in the French fashion culture. As the Queen of France from 1774-1792, her life was full of extravagance and luxury and she wanted her fashion to be representative of her lifestyle. In fact, she w... ...businesses reviewed annually to preserve the reputation of such a prestigious association. Chambre syndicale Du PrÃ ªt-Ã -porter des Couturiers et des CrÃ ©ateurs de Mode is a group made up of haute couture houses and fashion designers who design womenÃ¢â¬â¢s ready-to-wear fashion, and the Chambre syndicale de la Mode Masculine is a group exclusively for menÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion. Since 1935 the FÃ ©dÃ ©rationÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters have been located at 100 rue de Faubourg Saint HonorÃ © in ParisÃ¢â¬â¢s 8 arrondissement; in the heart of the city where it all began. Combined, the three trade organizations have over 100 corporate members. A unique quality of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture and the Chambre syndicale Du PrÃ ªt-Ã -porter des Couturiers et des CrÃ ©ateurs de Mode, is that it accepts international members as well. This is said to reflect the quickly expanding globalization of the industry.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Storming Stage: Every individual in the group will come up with different ideas to solve the problems of the reject; Also members will share their experiences and bring in what they have learnt from different projects form the past which will be great benefit to this one (what worked and what didn't work). At this stage every idea is valuable to make the project perfect -All ideas or contributions must be noted and treated as important. Morning Stage: At this stage, they work out strengths and weaknesses Of all the members to know who can do what based on individuals background, experience and area of expertise.The task is now assigned to everyone from the processes listed in the forming stage. They also prepare a timely schedule for the completion of the tasks as well as meeting dates in which each stage of task is fed back to the group ( as they are all from different countries, their meeting could be done using Ã¢â¬ËConference call' or online). They will have to prepare their sc hedule in line with the tight deadline they have been given. Performing Stage: This is the stage in which the project is actually completed, tested and executed. The improvement process is completed and updated unto the company's database.Samaritan oversees the whole process as a team leader. Paul will be in charge of the budget Ã¢â¬â looking at how much the company is willing to spend on this project; the actual cost of resources needed; cost of contracting out if necessary; and how well they can manage the fund available to complete the project. Michael has a good knowledge of stakeholders, so he is going to be looking at the needs of clients; the benefit and suitability of the improvement process to the company's operation. Michael along with Alice will be working together looking at the cost benefit analysis of the project.They will be considering and weighing the benefits of he project to its cost to the company in long term. Susan and Alice will be given the responsibility of writing the programmed, of needs to improve the process using programming languages, which will be incorporated into the existing process software and updated. Everyone is now aware of what is expected of him or her and from here they move onto the fourth stage which is; Adoring Stage: after the new process is implemented, then the team's objective is completed and thereby dissolved, this is referred to as the adoring stage.The basis for which the group was plopped has been actualities. When there is need for any other improvement then another group/team will be established which may comprise of the same or different set of people. Mourning Stage: This won't really apply to this team as their task has been completed and the team has been automatically dissolved. The mourning stage is when a group loses its member(s) and there happens to be no replacement. It may only apply to this team if doing he period they are working on the project, a member resigns is being sacked from the c ompany and not been replaced by any other person.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Online retailing or E-tailing (Electronic retailing) or direct marketing are now gaining in tremendous awareness by the businesses and the customers at large. This concept is normally termed as a B2C (business to consumer) transaction. There have been many categories or channels, which corporate adopt in order to distribute and reach its target customers.But involving and interfering with channels of a company having a multi-channel distribution system poses a great challenge. Online marketing could be done in several categories. The prominent of which are ? pure click Ã¢â¬â where in the firms sell their total products on the web based domain space or the virtual space. ? Click and Brick Ã¢â¬â They are the business which use both online and offline channel structure.Brick and Mortar Ã¢â¬â firms, which sell their entire product, line by using a physical space system. Each of these channels have their respective advantages and disadvantages, but the firm should be wise and con scious about the different channel system they are adopting as there are chances of conflicts which could arise with reference to tapping the same customer base or the same territory or having goal incompatibility.In the case mentioned, if was given a chance to be in-charge of a direct marketing system, there would be certain strategies, which I would implement, in-order to stabilize and maintain a good relation with all the other channel partners. Since there are greater chances of having conflicts between the online and offline retailers, to gain acceptance from intermediaries I would pacify or satisfy my channel partners by test marketing the following strategies and tactics.First Ã¢â¬â offer a different mix of product line or different brands on the web based system than their offline channel partners or retail partners. Second Ã¢â¬â provide better and higher discounts and commissions for its retail partner to improve the negative impact on sales and to increase the profit s. Third Ã¢â¬â Allow the customers to register their orders on the online system, but appoint retailers to deliver and collect payment where in the retailers are also cushioning on a ready-made customer base.Fourth Ã¢â¬â Give a choice to the customers if they require a work on their purchase with a financial advisor, if yes their information will be routed to an advisor. Fifth Ã¢â¬â each of the retail partners could have their own website to avoid competition of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s web based system. Sixth Ã¢â¬â the customers who purchase online could be allowed to accept the online coupons and redeem their amount in its stores. These are some of the ways by which I will convince my retail partners for the launch of the direct marketing campaign.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The final act of Translations is an act in which Yolland ends up as missing, so creating a number of stories as to the circumstances of his disappearance. The final act of Translations can indeed be criticised for lacking dramatic power, as throughout the act there is no particular build up of tension that leads to one significant event. It can be seen that what happens to Yolland is fairly predictable; therefore the dramatic power is not present. The act can also be seen as ending in confusion as there is no definitive point that tells us exactly what each character goes on to do. But despite this, the statement may be questioned as was it Brian FrielÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose to do this? Perhaps by ending the play with a lack of dramatic power and in confusion, he has left the rest of the play and the events leading on from it down to the imagination of the reader. In the final act of Translations, everything flows along in a kind of way that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give dramatic power, as the subject and the dramatic power it radiates is the same as it was in the beginning of the play. The subject is still the same, being that of the changing of place names and its effect on the people of Ireland, and it never changes, therefore the readers have not experienced a build up of tension to an exciting and unannounced event. The very fact that Yolland, a British soldier loathed by many Irish as he is changing Irish place names, has had a relationship with Maire, a pretty young Irish girl whom Manus also likes, tells us that it may be likely that something will happen to him at the end of the play as he has caused much dislike for himself from those in the play due to these things. Therefore, this also causes a lack of dramatic power when he finally goes missing in act three, as it can be argued that it was bound to happen and could have been predicted by the readers. The final act of Translations also lacks dramatic power due to its Ã¢â¬ËechoesÃ¢â¬â¢ and resonances (that is, repetitions) to previous parts of the play. Brian Friel has woven in many an echo and resonance into the structure of the play, and this also causes a lack of dramatic power as the points that have been made in previous parts of the play are just being repeated over in act three. However, although it can be argued that there is a considerable lack of dramatic power, this may only be a lack in a physical sense, i.e. a lack of physical dramatic power, such as a fight taking place or someone being killed within the narration of the play. Throughout act three, characters emotions run high, and dramatic power can be seen as being expressed through their emotions. An example can be seen with Sarah mumbling her regret for not being able to speak more fluently. Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢m sorryÃ¢â¬ ¦IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorryÃ¢â¬ ¦ IÃ¢â¬â¢m so sorry, ManusÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ This use of few words repeating themselves, and the use of a. ellipsis symbolises her not being able to fully express her feelings fully through language as her linguistic talent is limited. The act has also been criticised for ending in confusion, and this may be down to many points which emerge throughout Act three.Ã The final act ends with an ellipsis, in that Hugh ends with, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦would come forth from LybiaÃ¢â¬â¢s downfallÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ If this final speech had ended with a full stop, then perhaps this would have signified the end of an era or the end of a build up to events. However, the ellipsis suggests that the process is ongoing, and it is not clear where the process is leading, or what it is leading to. Therefore, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t directly determine what happens at the end of the play, as there appears to be no definitive end to it. The ellipsis suggests that something will happen following the end of the play, yet the readers arenÃ¢â¬â¢t made clear as to what that will be. Another reason as to why the act has been criticised for ending in confusion is that we (as the readers) are not clear as to what finally happens to Yolland, or who is responsible for him going missing. We only have our suspicions to work with in trying to create an ending to the story. It seems suspicious that Manus leaves right away after it has been discovered that Yolland is missing, as Owen points out, Ã¢â¬ËClear out now and LanceyÃ¢â¬â¢ll think youÃ¢â¬â¢re involved somehow.Ã¢â¬â¢ Therefore, the readers may form suspicions about whoÃ¢â¬â¢s involved, yet this shows how the play ends in confusion as no-one can determine what has happened to him. The play ends in confusion as all of the characters are ended on a depressing note, with none of them showing exactly where they are going to go on to or what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll end up doing in life. The one thing we know is that Maire is going to go on to learn English, yet we are not told what that will take her on to. None of the characters specify what they will go on to do in life, yet each is ended in a dismal way with Jimmy Jack going mad and Yolland having gone missing. This demonstrates why the play has been criticised for ending in confusion, as the readers must only imagine what the characters go on to do. However, this may also have been purposeful by Friel to let audiences use their imaginations and minds to create an ending to the play. Another way of interpreting this is by saying that Brian Friel has not ended the play in that much confusion, as by taking information from the history books, and by using our own knowledge, it is clear as to what happens to Ireland following on from the end of the play. Ireland does go on to be taken over completely by England, and all the place names are changed form Irish to English. Therefore, it can also be argued that the play does end in confusion but only to a certain extent as we (as readers) at least know the fate of Ireland.Ã Therefore, the points that Brian Friel ends act three in confusion and with a lack of dramatic power can be agreed upon but can also be argued against as Brian Friel may have ended in such a way for a purpose, that being to allow the reader to use their imagination in creating the end of a Ã¢â¬Ëstory.Ã¢â¬â¢
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Not all naturally occurring metals are used by the body for important biological processes. Lead and cadmium are examples of these metals that are not essential for life but may even cause toxicity and death if taken in large doses. A study conducted in Japan showed a correlation between protein intake with the increased vulnerability for intoxication of cadmium (Tavari 1986). Rats given a low protein diet were observed to have higher toxicity from these metals that were also detected in the urine and feces (Suzuki 1984).Ã A low protein diet in humans is usually advised to those with kidney and liver diseases and as a result, this negative effect of higher metal toxicity is important to understand. Metals act by binding to organic compounds subsequently altering their structure and possibly modifying their function. When the function in not carried out well, this can lead to cell death and inactivation of the production of important enzymes (Ã¢â¬Å"Metals as toxinsÃ¢â¬ ). For instance, a metal compound can compete with a biologically significant element such as oxygen to create an enzyme responsible for degrading glucose. If this metal successfully defeats oxygen, the enzyme may not be produced; thus, glucose will not be degraded and possibly accumulated. This is a simple example of what a metal can do to the body. In the case of normal protein intake, the body has enough proteins that can bind to harmful compounds such as metals. Similar to the action of a lock and key, a specific protein can complex with damaging bioelements and then excrete them outside the body to prevent possible internal damage. Metallothionein specifically works as a chelating agent and combines itself with cadmium, for example and is excreted out of the body while Selenium, a protein abundantly found in egg whites, suppresses the toxic effect of metals (Ã¢â¬Å"Metals as toxinsÃ¢â¬ ). A low protein intake thus, have a significant effect in resulting to high levels of cadmium and lead in the blood since most protein clearly function in sweeping out these harmful metals by binding with them and then carrying them out of the body. References Ã¢â¬Å"Metals as toxins.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved August 11, 2007, from http://www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk/studentwebs/session2/group29/introtox.htm Suzuki, K.T., Miyamoto, E., Tanaka, Y. Kawamura, R. and Yamamura, M. (1984). Effect of diet on urinary and fecal excretion of cadmium, copper and zinc from rats preaccumulated heavily with cadmium. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 13 no.5. Retrieved August 11, 2007, from www.springerlink.com/index/J456157JVU87212T.pdf Tavari, P.C., Jain, V.K., Ashquin, M. and Tandon, S.K. (1986). Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol.15 no.4. Retrieved August 11, 2007, from www.springerlink.com/index/G88L4P84417XT467.pdf Ã Ã
Friday, September 13, 2019
Managing Diversity in the Company - Essay Example In exploring the article about managing diversity, I will start by outlining the reasons why I chose this article. The main reason why I chose this article is that it gives a comprehensive discussion of the issue of diversity in organizations. In addition, my choice of the article emanates from the fact that it has discussed current issues affecting diversity by describing diversity in the 21st century. The article is appealing in its discussion and is relevant to management issues and why diversity should be part of any formal organization. Moreover, my choice of the article was determined by the fact that it has outlined various frameworks and approaches, which are essential to valuing and managing diversity. My interest in the article was also driven by the range of topics that are discussed. For example, the article has provided a description of terms such as workforce diversity, cultural diversity, affirmative action, valuing diversity, equal employment opportunities, as well as multiculturalism. All these topics are crucial in enhancing the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of diversity in organizations.I also chose the article because it discusses the importance of diversity in both private and public organizations. Moreover, the article has provided the advantages that accrue when there is diversity in organizations. In the article, the author has discussed the many positive effects of diversity and the benefits that an organization derives from embracing diversity. In addition, the article is relevant to the issue of managing diversity since it has provided the conceptual values, as well as perspectives of diversity from various parts of the world. For example, from the article, one can derive that institutions in the American context are more concerned with the protection of the rights of minority groups. The dominance of the majority towards the minority is seen to hinder diversity in organizations.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Conflict Management - Assignment Example Having nothing to do at home, I decided to check on Jack earlier so that we could spend sometime telling stories as usual before finally setting off to MarcusÃ¢â¬â¢s party, which was some hours away. Never did I know that a bizarre incident was boiling up for the day. When my friend Jack returned from shower, he thought of calling Marcus to get us informed of how the event was progressing and just to confirm that we would not be late for the occasion. Absurdly, Jack could not find his iPhone where he thought he had placed it. Being the only man in the room, it is needless to say I was the chief suspect. With no hesitation, my friend confronted me shamelessly for stealing his gadget. It was like I had been struck hard on my head. Stealing someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s property? Jack was my friend, how could I be that malicious even if I was accustomed thief? I could not contain my furry. I could not resist shouting back at my friend who was also at the top of his voice demanding to be given back his treasured device. However, my shouting only escalated the conflict instead of helping to find an immediate resolution to the conflict. Fortunately, JackÃ¢â¬â¢s younger sister, who was outside, heard our quarrel and came into the room, perhaps, wondering if we had gotten into party mood that early. To her dismay, we were almost to the point of exchanging blows. Her first speech was, Ã¢â¬Å"Please, Jack what is all this about?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Imagine that I cannot find my iPhone when this thing here was the only one I left in the room while I went to shower!Ã¢â¬ Jack replied. Without another word, she flashed out her cell phone and called JackÃ¢â¬â¢s number. Fortunately, a thrilling sound emerged from an adjacent room. Jack was too ashamed to look at me straight in the eye. On the other hand, my anger had taken full control of me to think of anything other than getting back home and nursing my moment of furry in solitude. I quietly left the room and headed home. If I could replay the
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Marketing Communication Trends - Essay Example This paper is an executive report on marketing communication trends. Network radio, along with television, nationalized magazines, and great metropolitan everyday newspapers appear to have constantly been I existence before. These structures not merely tied the nation together; however, there is strapping substantiation that to a large extent they assisted create the current societal and political civilization. Since each person could, and frequently did, perceive and conceivably hear similar messages at once starting from the 1950s and ending in the 1990s, people created nearly standardized mass media, along with mass marketing civilization (Jain, 2008). Marketing companies created generally demanded goods for these mass marketplaces. Retail distribution structures developed to vend to and via these marketplaces. Marketing communications experts developed plans, agendas, and structures to correspond with these mass marketplaces. Then technology rammed into society and individual wants and requirements. Suddenly customers, who currently had additional information compared to before, started to demand particular products, distribution structures, and communication. What at one time had been known to be a mass marketplace fragmented into thousands of detached, individual marketplaces driven by standard of living, ethnic background, earnings, geography, schooling, sexual category, and any other thing, which makes an individual dissimilar from another (Jaceviciute, 2011). Persons who are over 40 years old, were brought up as verbal correspondents. The prominence was on inscription and reading proficiencies. Persons who are less than forty years, are affiliates of the generation that is visual. This age group was raised on TV, movies, speeches, along with the verbal word. The disparity between the manner in which these two age groups communicate is remarkable. The change from a spoken to a visual
2. What is the difference between an alliance problem and an alliance symptom, and what does this difference mean in terms of managerial intervention - Essay Example Most of the time differencing between alliance problems and symptoms becomes a challenge for the organization. There is always a difference between these two. Problems are usually not visible on the front line and symptoms on the other hand are quite clear and are a constant reminder of an upcoming problem. In strategic alliances the organizations usually consider a symptom as a problem and instead of doing an in-depth analysis of that symptom they take initiatives to solve it. This false interpretation of problems and symptoms can lead towards greater hazards. An example of difference between alliance symptom and problem is: when an organization observes an unenthusiastic change in the behavior of its partner it should not immediately take initiatives to change this behavior instead it should try to find out the root cause of this change. This change in behavior can be a result of lack of trust among the partners, in-competitive behavior of one of the partners, difference in the atm osphere of the two organizations or a difference between work schedule and strategies of the two organizations. If the organization over-looks these core problems and misinterprets the symptom as a problem then it can endanger the alliance. This misinterpretation is the cause of failure of more than 66 percent of the alliances. Even though the above mentioned factor can be a hurdle in the success of an alliance but proper and effective senior management is the most important factor for overcoming these hazards. If the top management is committed to the success of the alliance then it should take proper steps in order to avoid these problems and their misinterpretation with the symptoms. The management should try to understand the philosophies of the management of their partner organization. If the attitudes and thinking of both the managements would be similar then most of the core problems would be avoided. Another important factor is effective
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Do Contrast in the Long-term Financing and Ownership of Business Explain National Differences in the Governance and Management of Firms, and Fundamentally Account for the Success of Major Economies - Essay Example In the paper, the case of KFC in the UK, US, Japan, and China will be compared and contrast in terms of the nature of ownership, governance, business strategy, corporate objectives, power/authority of management, nature of strategic decision-making, nature of decisions on building corporate capabilities, the long-term and short-term investment in technology, investment in plant and machinery in relation to productivity, and management of people. Eventually, a comparison will be made in the four countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ degree of relationship between performance and finance systems, forces of convergence, and internationalization before and after 1990. Prior to a conclusion, the extent to which the crisis of 2008 has transformed the nature of the debate about the financial system and types of capitalism will be tackled in details. KFC was first established in the US and was eventually sold to PepsiCo back in 1986 and eventually became a subsidiary of YUM!. As part of its globalization strate gy, KFC entered the UK market via 60% franchised + 40% equity, Japan via the joint venture (JV) through the franchise with Mitsubishi Corporation (62%), and China through franchising. Since the Chinese government did not recognize the term Ã¢â¬Å"franchisingÃ¢â¬ back in the 1990s, most of the first few KFC stores in China were company-owned. Governance is all about having the best and most legal and ethical system that can be used in directing or controlling the business. In most cases, corporate governance aims to regulate the corporate conduct by creating a balance between the internal and external stakeholders, the government, and the local communities. Aside from being able to fulfill the BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities to its shareholders, the top management of KFC strongly believes that the process of creating good corporate governance is one of the key factors that will make their business a success.
Monday, September 9, 2019
Write a paragraph - Essay Example Nash equilibrium has its implications both positive and negative. Positively, each player has the advantage of getting the expected payoff given what the opponent plays. Negatively, this strategy is not applicable in all cases. This is because there can be pure strategy normative expectations equilibria which are not Nash equilibria. The prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma is an example of such a case scenario (Julian & Wolfgang, 2000). Nash equilibrium may not be Nash equilibrium at all in the event that one would like to have a little bit of extra credit. This is based on the fact that it places one in compromising scenarios in which it leaves the player with no option other than not opting for not being part of the whole process. In a bar, the goods and services on sale are not returnable and so once consumed it is as good as gone. This will constantly leave the owner of the bar at a loss since there is no positive payoff in the sense that he will always stand a chance of losing in all the possible outcomes (Julian & Wolfgang,
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Innovation and Change - Essay Example It is therefore very important that knowledge on these important areas is effectively imparted on the people working for organizations and beyond. As such, this module has been a great source of very relevant knowledge and information on some of the contemporary issues that characterize innovation practices across the world. As realized in the readings, the essence of innovation is basically to provide efficient means and ways through which operations in the organization can be bettered. In the same way, innovation is normally geared towards increasing the productivity of the organization through improved production methods and efficiency. It was learnt that a very important aspect in the innovation process involves sourcing for the innovative ideas. In this regard, organizations are encouraged to develop a culture of innovation within the organization through inculcating the imperatives of innovation on the minds of the employees (Cooper & Edgett, 2010). Indeed, employees are the gr eatest assets any organization can effectively use to improve its innovation processes. It was realized that some of the greatest organizations like FedEx and Apple have successfully managed to become market leaders in their respective areas of operation courtesy of innovation. These organizations realized the importance of innovation from an early age and thereby developed very elaborate innovation infrastructure within them. As such, a culture of innovation is very essential in creating the positive change that is much important in the present competitive business environment. However, in addressing the sources of innovation in the organization, it becomes important to realize that some of the assumptions in the module might not always reflect the real picture on the ground. Creating an innovative culture within a particular organization is not really an easy undertaking. In order to create a culture of innovation within an organization, a lot of time is actually needed coupled wi th sufficient financial resources to invest in the innovation process. In any case, the realization of these needs is normally high for most organizations. It therefore implies that smaller organizations might find it much difficult to compete against much bigger organizations which can effectively funds their innovation processes. Without doubt, the success of any innovation process depends upon the proper implementation of the innovation strategy for the organization. The module also highlighted the concept of open innovation and how it can benefit organizations aspiring to benefit from innovation processes. Open innovation is normally the practice whereby organizations are encouraged to go beyond their borders and seek ideas for innovation from other organizations. Indeed, the imperatives of open innovation cannot be overemphasized. The process is very critical as a great source of ideas for organizations operating in very competitive environments. Knowledge never exists in isola tion. The growth of innovative knowledge therefore depends upon that sharing and developing of other innovative ideas from outside the organization. However, despite the seemingly important role of open innovation as captured in the module, it is realized that some organizations have always failed in their innovation processes through the aspect of open innovatio
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Woolf Professions of women - Essay Example I wanted to know more about the challenges that a modern woman faces at work, and this curiosity and interest has inculcated the motivation in me to research this topic. I am eager to learn about the psychological barriers holding modern women back. We see that women are getting more and more independent and a break from their traditional domestic and familial responsibilities generally as they are integrating into the socioeconomic system. While the physical barriers to freedom have been eradicated to a large extent, most women still cannot use their skills and competencies optimally because of the psychological barriers. (Woolf) has expressed this very clearly in her writing as she said, Ã¢â¬Å"The Angel was dead; what then remained? You may say that what remained was a simple and common object Ã¢â¬â a young woman in a bedroom with an inkpot. In other words, now that she had rid herself of falsehood, that young woman had only to be herself. Ah, but what is Ã¢â¬Å"herselfÃ¢â¬ ?Ã¢â¬ (Woolf cited in Rainbolt and Fleetwood 302). I want to learn what sort of psychological barriers are encountered by working women in general and how they deal wi th them. I also want to know more about what are the goals of a vast majority of the working women. I want to learn their preferences and priorities. I want to know if personal freedom and autonomy is more important for women in the modern age or they generally want to work and earn money in order to be able to take care of their families better domestically as well as financially. In order to find answers to my queries, I shall first conduct a thorough review of literature. I shall read the novels, autobiographies, and journals of famous women writers, and note down any quotations, passages, and narrations that qualify as answers to my questions in any way. It would take me five to six drafts to finalize my research paper that would be structured in a way that
Friday, September 6, 2019
Repetitive spreading depression Essay Jefferson (1996) notes that fear of crime is comprised of two distinct elements: personal fear and the use of a public fear of crime discourse. The latter could be variably invested, and could be more about crime than fear of crime. It was sometimes inflected more with anger. Some were invested in other discourses, such as neighborhood decline. It has been found that personal fears were normally of particular crimes, notably burglary or sexual assault, and could vary: inside and outside the home; and within and beyond familiar, local territory. Women are found to be more likely to express personal fear and men are more likely to reproduce the public discourse, especially older men (Jefferson, 1996). In discerning the distinction between the two genders and how each is affected by the fear of crime phenomenon, it was found that sex as such was not predictive of fear of crime; however, the effects of gender increased fears of victimization among women and sense of safety among men. While women feared for physical safety, men were in fear only as far as crime against them, not necessarily that of physical endangerment. Age was influential and found to be especially true for men. Anxieties about declining health and strength were sometimes expressed and are perceived to be in direct relation with a males concern of aging and becoming unable to protect himself in the event of a crime. Age did not appear to affect women in the same level as it was apparent that women of all ages are concerned about being unable to protect themselves against the possibility of physical crime. While older women were more likely to experience this type of fear, it was in no way peculiar to an age group among women. Findings help to establish the means to derive a more complete view of a given social environment (Koehly et al, 1998, p. 3). Research findings have helped to explain the measurement problems of crime and the fear of crime phenomena as it relates to gender depression. In two groups of mostly local, young or middle-aged, low-crime women, levels of fear and anxiety exceeded very low risk. Three of these women (married with children) worried excessively about burglary, or physical and sexual assault, and were hence judged depressively anxious. Their anxieties centered on their children but also included other members of the family, as well, revealing a core anxiety expressed as traditional, caring femininity. The lack of identity beyond that of being wife or mother combines with projection of protective agency onto the men in their families, leaving them with excess vulnerability that manifests in fears of burglary and/or assault. For two women in the study, fear of crime centered on fear of male sexual violence linked to violent, alcoholic fathers (Jefferson, 1996). II. SIDE EFFECTS OF DEPRESSION During the past decade the prevalence of eating disorders has increased among teenage and college-age American women. This increase is probably caused in part by societys idea of the ideal woman as being overly thin in order to be beautiful. Research has shown that anorexia nervosa consists of several psychopathological components as well as the physical components, and that the psychopathological characteristics often include such things as depression, anxiety, and difficulty in social situations, as well as low self-esteem (Wilcox, 1996). Adolescence is an intense time and is normally a time of physical changes as well as psychological changes. Females in particular seem to experience stress that is not experienced by their male peers. Females commonly experience depression during adolescence and other characteristics such as obsessiveness, compulsion and general reticence are quite common. While most anorexics have co-occurring clinical depression there are others suffering from anxiety, substance abuse or personality problems as well as an increased risk of suicide. Parks et al (1997) notes that within nonclinical samples, body image distortions have been associated with lowered self-esteem, depression, and chronic dieting (p. 593). The vicious cycle that exists with depression and female eating disorders serves to perpetuate the mental imbalance. Indeed, the consequences are far greater than just being overweight. Obesity, in and of itself, leads to a number of other diseases and complications that can significantly shorten a persons life. Of the long list of ailments, those at the top include heart disease, some cancers, diabetes, high cholesterol and blood pressure, and gallbladder disease. However, the mental distress such behavior causes is a significant concern, for a poor emotional outlook also takes its toll on the body. A common denominator among women with eating disorders is the overwhelming feeling of inadequacy they experience. Attempts to control their problem usually prove futile, which serves to plummet them even further and further into the depths of shame and depression. Based upon an article from the British Medical Journal entitled Male Sexual Problems, the findings indicate that male sexual function is so completely interwoven with other factors that there is no one single factor that can be considered the cause of sexual dysfunction. Dysfunction is often the result of factors such as complications from illness, general poor health or even side effects from treatment of other illnesses. Impotence is the major common side effect of many drugs, and it has also been a known side effect of aging, anxiety and depression. Male sexual dysfunction is also a known result of all forms of psychiatric disorder either directly or indirectly, with the side effects of drugs taken in conjunction with psychiatric disorder leading to sexual dysfunction such as depression. As sexual function continues to wane, the incidence of increased depression becomes cyclical in nature (Gregoire, 1999). CHEMICAL ASPECT Establishing the determinants of depression and gender in relation to the death of astrocytes in the brain, one is compelled to investigate the myriad experiment data that has surfaced since it was first surmised that the two entities had any connection to each other. Indeed, it has been found that the lack of astrocytic activity in the brain is an integral component to the overall concept of depression; it is with this information that the psychological community has become better equipped to address the relationship between astrocytic death and depression. Considered for decades to be a disease of the insane, depression has finally been recognized for the debilitating and emotionally unbalancing illness it truly is. With an astounding fifteen million Americans suffering from clinical depression a full five percent of the entire United States population it can no longer be looked upon as nothing more than merely the blues. Additionally, another five percent are victims of occasional despondency, with one of every six people succumbing to a significant depressive episode at some point throughout their lives. Depression often hits the elderly more than any other age group; however, with each passing year the average age of sufferers continues to drop. The field of psychology utilizes a number of statistical procedures in order to effect the applicable findings. According to Kendall (1991), the typical procedure behind such research is accumulated by way of study reviews, which employ the use of methodological considerations. These include deciding upon outcome measures, regulating therapy quality, as well as investigating client and therapist characteristics and the therapeutic relationship (Kendall et al, 1991, p. 78). There exist a number of issues that serve to influence the comparison modes, such as side effects, compliance and quickness of action, which must also be taken into overall consideration when determining the data. Among the variables that exist within the framework of statistical procedures, defining whether or not there is a difference between gender participation is a significant consideration. One study in particular from the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program noted the differences between male and female patient statistical findings after a number of procedures were rendered. Zlotnick (1998) notes that depending upon the type of treatment each individual received placebo/clinical management; cognitive-behavioral therapy; interpersonal therapy; or imipramine/clinical management it was established that the final outcome was not influenced by gender. While the role of gender was examined in the process and outcome of therapy in the treatment (Zlotnick et al, 1998, p. 655) by reproducing the same findings in relation to psychotherapeutic treatment methods, it was determined that the second set of findings were the same. Researchers have been making the connection for some time now between depression and the death of astrocytes, noting that the astrocytes being essential for the brains nerve cells have been discovered to have healing properties. Pennisi (1999) notes how neurobiologists are beginning to recognize the regeneration components of astrocytes. Its going to make [neurobiologists] look at these cells in more detail. It will be interesting to see if they can be purified and used in [brain] repair (Pennisi 1999, p. PG). Understanding the roles that neurons and astrocytes play in the body helps one to fully comprehend why there may be a strong connection to depression. Astrocytic responsibility includes maintaining the blood brain barrier (BBB), as well as providing structural support, protection and repair of the central nervous system (CNS). Neurons, on the other hand, are the vital links between electrical impulses and the nervous system. Repetitive spreading depression (SD) waves, involving depolarization of neurons and astrocytes and up-regulation of glucose consumption, is thought to lower the threshold of neuronal death during and immediately after ischemia (Miettinen et al, 1997, pp. 6500-6505). In postulating the hypothesis that the growth or death of astrocytes somehow affects depression, it is relatively easy to recognize the fact that without the necessary astrocytes in place, conducting the brain-healing processes that they have been discovered to posses, it triggers within the brain the inability to maintain a sense of perspective. A kind of star-shaped brain cell that helps support surrounding nerve cells plays a much more pivotal role in maintaining the brains vitality than researchers had thought astrocytes double as neural stem cells, the source of new nerve cells (Pennisi, 1999, p. PG). Wineke (1996) notes the importance of ongoing research into the very real possibility that the absence of astrocytes serves to adversely effect brain function. Twenty years ago, the ideas we are studying were considered eccentric and fanciful. Now, this is really where its at (Wineke, 1996, p. 1G).