Thursday, February 28, 2019

Pros and Cons of Social Networking Essay

There are more polar pros and cons of social networks. Social networks allow for easier parley and allow muckle to find new friends. barely, these sites allow pedophiles to groom kids and allow for hector.Social Networking sites sire allowed easier communication between family and friends. This means that instead of having to meet in a trustworthy place to switch words to your friends ab forbidden school or what they are doing at the weekend, you would now be able to switch on your computer and go onto a social network such as Facebook or twitter to do this. This reduces the chance of kidnappers of taking kids when they are walking to get their friends. This as well as reduces the amount of kids walking around the streets committing crimes.Social Networks also remove the business of speaking to person on the former(a) side of the land and someone who follows a different religion. Inserted of just speaking to pile from the same discipline as you, people give the gate now speak to people from the States to Australia who has the same interests as you. This allows people to make new friends and gives the serviceman a more than friendly society because more and more people are becoming friends across the world.These sites are also very interactive so you are able to upload pictures or videos, so you throne trip up what your friends and relatives are up to. These sites also allow messages to be sent and assembled, which allows people to keep in touch. For example people may non speak to family members to often alone because of Facebook they are able to have a chaffer whenever they want which allows for a better family relationship.These social networking sites can be recognisen advantage of by the wrong people. People could pass themselves as a sixteen year old girl but could really be a forty year old man who is looking to take advantage of someone who lead think they either know the person or they are the same age. As these pedophi les have the use of Google images or yahoo images they are able to post profile pictures of whatever or whoever they want and pass as that person. level(p) though we know this is casualty there is no way to stop thisunless social networking sites were shutdown. These people pull up stakes often go for young kids and are able to receive loathly pictures because they tempt the kids into doing these things. If u make your page open to the whole world to view pedophiles will use this to their advantage and take any pictures or videos you have uploaded for their personal use.Social Networks are also poorly censored. Kids, of a very young age, could end up downloading pornography or other(a) incongruous images. Kids will click on unsuitable images or videos but no warning will come up or something obstruct people under a certain age to block this. However many people will lie about their age which will allow many very young kids the opportunity to view these unsuitable pictures. tr olling is also a major issue with social networking sights. Trolling is when someone posts rude or nasty messages on someones online forum, chat room or memorial page just to receive and emotional response from the readers. Trolls get a buzz from doing this on peoples pages and receiving responses as they think it is funny and they just love the tutelage they get from sending these messages. As Twitter and Facebook got bigger and bigger more and more trolls began to appear ruining sites and making people very upset. As the issue of trolling got bigger and bigger the police became more touch and have started jailing people.For example Sean Duffy, who wrote abusive messages on security pages for example a girl called Natasha MacBryde who was hit by a train. He also did this to many other pages. In the end he only received cardinal weeks in jail. Like many trolls Duffy was unemployed and an alcoholic who spent his long time sitting on social networking sites making people very ups et. in time though we know trolling exists there is not much we can do to stoop it apart from not allowing people to view the tribute page or forum unless you know who they are.http// bullying is the main problem of social networking sites. Cyber bullying is when someone is threatened, harassed or humiliated using socialnetworking sites, mobile phones or any other type of digital technology. Many people have either been cyber bullied of they have cyber bullied themselves. From the introduction of the big name social networks cyber bullying has become a very big problem. On sites such as Formspring people can post anonymous comments about people who they dislike which end up to people not wanting to leave there house or even committing suicide.For example Phoebe Prince, an Irish immigrant in America, killed herself after troika months of bullying because she was datin g somebody who was older then her. She was bullied through text message and Facebook. She hung herself because of who she was dating. Cyber bullying is very common and will never be stopped due to lack of supervision on these websites.http// point?id=10231357In conclusion, social networking sites are have pros and cons but mostly cons. Even though these websites allow people to make lots of new friends they get dressedt actually know if the person they are talking to is actually who they say they are. Religions are able to mix but sometimes this is not a good thing. People will start posting racialist comments and then arguments will start because someone follows Christianity but the person doesnt like that religion so they become racist.Pedophiles thrive on pictures organism posted and they also love using things such as the Facebook chat system to their advantage. Trolls make peoples lifes, who has lost someon e they love, a ruin so they can feel better. Bullies get a kick out of being a coward and ruining someone elses life because they have their own problems. Therefore social networking sights are not good for the world and cause more anger and hatred than people getting along.

Being Me

Being Me Its tough universe a puerile girl especi completelyy me, thats excruciating. Take some advice no one whoremonger ever to the full witness psyche so dont even try to its impossible. As you read this essay beware, non everyone lives with money and happiness handed to them or lives the dream. Fact 1, Everyone is stereotyped, bound to w nauseatever group everyone else thinks you are, not who you actually are every stereotype hates at least one early(a). I frustrate stereotyped because of the make-up on my face, nothing else, vertical how I manner. Why? To find another way to make themselves feel discontinue by putting everyone else down.Pathetic, right? I dupe lost and gained so m either people it is unbelievable one thing I go away say though, is no one sticks almost. They expect you there for their troubles exactly when yours its completely different, you can negociate them on your own, yes of course. I convey gained 3 important people though, Heather Gem ma and Anya, they may not stick around forever scarcely they are the closest. I am bitter towards fri annulships because I lost my best friend to her boyfriend, shaped my opinions on almost everything, from friendships to relationships with anyone, a great deal.Looking cover charge on this I would say I travelling bagd that poorly, I dont need to be hasty but I choose to be. Right, lets take a look into the intricate mind of me. My paranoia ruins all my relationships, including my family and friends, it works me up to the point I get extremely upset to the point I cant eat or sleep. My paranoia makes me think that if I havent intercommunicate to someone in a few sidereal days they absolutely hate my guts, it ruins everything for me. Also, my temper has extremely heightened to the point I am constantly natty towards everyone, the smallest things irritate me.If it was possible I would evaporate my paranoia into thin air and get on with my life but when I look plump for on it I wish I would just grow up, name myself a slap and get on with my life. I am constantly timid out and lacking any enthusiasm in anything. This means my centralize on anything, especially school work. Unfortunately I need my grades for a job, college or maybe even university- how good would it be if you didnt? It puts your self-assurance down to know you would need higher As to succeed. Oh well, you can only do the best you can?No, not good enough, shake the barriers, get the highest grades possible Yeah right When I look back on my focus on my grades etc, I actually cannot foster it, I wish I could grasp what the teachers tell me but it goes right by means of me no outlet what I try. As many other teenage girl I dont see, in the mirror, what everyone sees when they look at me. I see a FAT, ugly, scarred girl, looking back at me. To do my make-up in the morning I see a monster gawk back at me. My weight will not change no matter what I do, I cannot change my face, I cannot cha nge my past either I completely give up now.When people look at me they only see the intimidating merely happy me I want them to see this gives them the impression of no matter what they do I will be as strong as ever, they will never bring me to my knees. I would say I handle this extremely well considering the amount of self criticism I give myself. People can change your attitudes towards almost anything I suppose yes? Correct. one(a) person has influenced my recent attitude adjustments I cannot sleep any more than, I cannot arrogance anyone and he makes me extremely short tempered.Now-a-days if anyone just slightly annoys me I have thoughts going through my head of the things I would do to them if possible but luckily enough I manage to keep my temper. I handle my temper burst than anything else in my life, I dread to think where I would be if it completely consumed me. I suppose you could say I have never had a proper start in life I never really saw my parents growing up, I grew up with frenzy but technically that made me the person I am forthwith able to defend myself although I just use it to intimidate.Peer imperativeness also played a part in my growing up I had no chance growing up as a normal teenager oh, do this, its cool Cmon, just do it DO IT, DO IT In the end you just end up bowing down to peer pressure, then it consumes you with its viscous grip. I wish I had never given into peer pressure, it has supplemented into ruining my life. Of all things that should affect me, death doesnt. It happens yes it fills you with great sadness but on the other hand it happens, get over it. It happens to everyone close or near to you.Although I must admit I am lucky enough never to have lost a relative as close such as a parent, sibling, etc. I lost my great aunt Ivory not too long ago but I was at a loss as to why we celebrate the day of someones funeral, it just seems wrong. They may possibly be better off dead but people should be looking back in re morse to think they never spent any more time possible with that person I never spent any more time with my granddad than when my mother took me in. I didnt understand he was dying but I wish I had pass to pay more time with him.When I think about it all, I handle my life as best as I can, if I lost at least one aspect, maybe my temper, I would be ended, that would appear on my records preventing me from my beloved job I crave. To be serious? I am a cold person who should be messed up more than I already am but who can help anyone? No one because no one can ever fully understand another, it is impossible. I wish I wasnt so messed up although I wouldnt trade my life for anyone elses, because everyone has their flaws.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Bob Knowlton Essay

1. DESCRIPTIONThis fictitious character is about a work team that worked together effectively, bonded well and felt comfort fitting virtually each other. All until another person ( suppurate) came into the company who had much noesis that the leader of the group (Knowlton), make a form of intimidation causing Knowlton to resign, and the group to be without a leader.2. DIAGNOSIS.The main problem in this case was the lack of confidence Knowlton developed due to a new part to the company who had more experience to bring to the table. Knowlton was impressed by discharges approach to the group- analyzed reports, defined the flaws in the group, and new ways to address things. In addition the group was uncomfortable with the amount of knowledge eject obtained causing lack in work performance- not able to speak out their thoughts/opinion, act with hesitation, and less team meetings. Basically Fester interfered with their normal routine.THEORYThe theory behind all of this was Fester was supposed(a) to be partnered up with Knowlton to get an ideal of his work. However, due to propinquity which Luthans describes as individuals affiliate with one another because of partial or geographical propinquity Fester got involved by reviewing previous report, leading him to raise concerns and questions (2011). Furthermore, harmonize to Newcombs balance theory of group formation, Fester and Knowlton did not redeem similar attitudes to common objects and goals of the group causing a mishap to connect.Moreover, with Fester pointing out good ideas that would have actually helped the group, the group didnt fatality to make that effort to try to take that new approach and was liberal to deviate. Luthans describes this as the punctuated equilibrium model, groups form in a first contour in which a target or mission is set and because argon not altered very easily due to a process called inertia, or systematic resistance to change (2011). Lastly Knowlton present poor leade rship skill by leaving the group preferably than trying to stick it out.4. PRESCRIPTIONShort term resolutions Would be to figure the group a new leader. Long term resolutions Would be for Knowlton to affirm his flaws as a leader. He hasself-efficacy up until the point that somebody obtains more knowledge. Knowlton needs to realize that there will always be someone who know more. Furthermore the group needs to learn to adapt to change and no how to step out of their comfort zones- change up their process, vex for more.5. FALLOUTFor Knowlton, if doesnt change his ways he will never be a successful leader and instead a failure (quitter) A true leader does not back down or quit without a fight. Furthermore, if the group dont realize that things are bound to change, then they too will never find an craft that they are happy with- businesses are growing and change is part of it.ReferencesLuthans, F., (2011).Advanced institution Behavior MBA 633. McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions.

Investment Appraisal Essay Question Essay

Q3) Using decimal and qualitative information, suggest which instill Felix and Holly should invest in.In the case study we argon told that Felix and Holly be purpose it hard to decide whether to invest in a soccer indoctrinate or a netball naturalize. They jakes use many different investing funds idea techniques which are two(prenominal) qualitative and quantitative in sight to light upon which enthronement would be intimately appropriate or worthwhile. They engage to plow the level of risk involved, how fast-flyingly the investment will pullulate to net off and whether the investment will be profitable.There are three main types of quantitative investment estimation techniques that Felix and Holly could use to identify which investment is most profitable. The first investment appraisal technique is vengeance and this measures how quickly the investment can be paid back. Using the estimations that Felix and Holly father submitted, the payback close for the socc er tame is 3 years and 4 months. The payback period for the netball school is 2 years and 8 months. This path that Felix and Holly would be better off investing in the netball school as it would take a shorter period of time to cover their cost. Another investment appraisal technique that could be used is account statement charge per unit of pop off. This appraisal measures the profitability of any investment and the profit is expressed as a percentage.Look morecapital budgeting examples essayFor the soccer school the accounting count of go down is 8.8% whereas it is 17.6% for the netball school. The comparison between these two proves that the netball school would be a better investment as the percentage of accounting crop of put across is much high than that of the soccer school. In addition, another quantitative method of appraisal is net present value. Unlike payback and ARR, this investment appraisal considers the value of funds over time. It converts all monetary va lue into todays values to allow for a realistic judicial decision of the returns of the years ahead. At 8% over 5 years, both the soccer school and netball school investments have a positive value which fashion that they are both worthwhile. However the value of the netball school is 12,430 which is a part high(prenominal) than the soccer school value at 6,950. This means that the netball school would be much more profitable for Felix and Holly as the value of the money is still greater than the soccer school.Qualitative methods of investment appraisal can also be used to identify which school would be most worthwhile for Felix and Holly to invest into. Some important factors that would need to be interpreted into consideration by Felix and Holly for their business are their objectives, resources available and the economy. A qualitative method of appraisal that can be used is internal rate of return. This investment appraisal allows specific information such as the return on the investment to be calculated. When calculated for the netball school, the internal rate of return is over 20% whereas the internal rate of return for the soccer school is between 16% and 20%. This means that the netball school has a higher rate of return than the soccer school.In conclusion, after using both quantitative and qualitative methods of investment appraisal I have identify that the most worthwhile appraisal would be the netball school. My reasons for this is because it has a shorter payback period which means that it would take a much shorter period of time to pay back. In addition, the accounting rate of return of the netball school was much higher than the soccer school. Moreover, the net present value proves that the value of the money invested inside the netball school will be much higher than that invested in the soccer school over a 5 year period. Consequently, the internal rate of return shows that the rate of return on the investment of the netball school is highe r than the return on the soccer school. Overall, all the various investment appraisal techniques that have been used have their advantages and limitations.A payback appraisal is quick and easy to calculate and can be well understood hardly it does not calculate the overall profitability of the investment or consider timing of cash flows within the payback period. Whereas an accounting rate of return does take cash flows into consideration. It also focuses on the profitability of the investment and is a good source for comparisons. Its limitations are that it ignores the timing of cash flows and the value of money over time. A net present value appraisal considers both timing and size of cash flows but it is a fairly abstruse system to use. Lastly, the internal rate of return can be easily used to compare different investments but is also very colonial to understand and use. All appraisal techniques have many limitations but they are valuable methods to consider when deciding on a particular investment. In this case all four appraisal techniques have been used to close that the most appropriate investment would be to invest in the netball school.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Food †Taco Bell Essay

Enjoying your nutriment with warm cooked bread along with sweet providedter to air and an iced cold drink to top it both off, or Rushing to feast your food because you rule as if you have to scarf it down in advance it gets to cold. Sit down restaurant or unwavering food what would you favour? Sitting down talking, ordering refills and desserts is my favorite while at a sit down restaurant besides some times I am in a bit of a hurry and need to baseball swing bye and get something fast that is easy to eat in a short amount of time.Some people may think fast food compared to sit down restaurants are almost the same further they do have many differences. Comparing 2 local food businesses such as taco Bell and Texas thoroughfare House, there prices I would standardised to say are a little low but the other are a little high. wetback Bell is considered a fast food joint, and is a place to go when you may be low on cash or in time when you may indispensability somethin g fast and easy after a long day at work to feed your family. taco Bell evermore has deals and low prices for those times when you want something good not to expensive but worthy your money. Texas Road can on the other march on is the opposite this is the place to go when you serious got a really good paycheck and feel as if you and your boyfriend need to be spoiled or maybe just want to have a night and go somewhere that leave have merriment serving you and also do not attend if you get a little crazy cause thats what having fun is all ab verboten.Texas Road House is considered a Steak House and it is somewhere to go when you want to enjoy a delicious meal and maybe even some drinks to have just a great night out yes you will be spending way more then you would if you went to Taco Bell but Texas road dramatics always fulfills my taste buds and its worth the money e rattling time. For some people the environment Is the most essential part about eating at a restaurant.Some like it quiet and not to be bothered others like it loud and packed. When selection a place like taco bell it is a precise quiet place to go and eat and rarely do you go in and enjoy your meal. Texas Road House on the other hand is very loud and there is always a long postponement list because its so packed. Not only is the environment consequential but also how clean the place is to, taco bell is always on top of cleaning and how nice and clean there mansion house is and also there bathrooms too.Texas Road house is clean besides all the peanuts you bring home on your shoes bathrooms are always unploughed up and you always leave with a full stomach.. To me having something fun at your restaurant is good it gives the place character and everyone knows where to go when they just feel like a bag of peanuts, or when you need some trim hot sauce packets at home. When it comes to different food items at these two places, they are different but thats what makes each place unique. Ta co bell has burritos, tacos, nachos, Mexican pizza etc.Texas Road House has a variety of things burgers, steaks, salads, baked potatoes, bread rolls, and so much more but each place does have a signature sauce they serve, taco bell has there mild ,medium, hot, and Verde sauce while Texas road house there steak sauce and there butter that everyone loves. Not only do you need the sauces and butters with your meal but you do need drinks as well. Taco bell has a variety of different pops, while Texas road house has pop, tea, lemonade, beer, margaritas, shots, etc. Taco bell compared to Texas Road house are very different in their own ways.

Cultural Diffusion, Space-Time Compression and the Limitations on Spatial Interaction Essay

Globalization in a store and The Tipping engineer Three Rules of Epidemics Chapter 1 Basic C at one timeptsEssay Question How do the ii articles relate to Chapter One Basic Concepts done cultural diffusion, the limitation of spacial interaction, and space-time compression?Whilst reading Globalization in a Bottle and The Tipping usher Three Rules of Epidemics three key concepts of Chapter One Basic Concepts sire inherently app arnt cultural diffusion, the limitation of spatial interaction, and space-time compression. The twain articles clearly depict these three theories, through their choice use of solid world examples.In each of these articles, cultural diffusion is a slopped theme through appear. World War II marked the diffusion of Coca-Cola on a global scale, as stated in Globalization in a Bottle. The physical move workforcet of soldiers from the US to other parts of the clump facilitated the spread and globalization of the drink and furthermore the brand name. When s oldiers were shipped off to conflicting lands so was Coca-Cola, and so it became a universal term. This action of spreading an mentation through movement earns this incident a spot under the stratum of relocation diffusion. In The Tipping Point Three Rules of Epidemics hush-puppies become popular once more through contagious diffusion, a subcategory of expansion diffusion, meaning an view spread through rapid and widespread contact.The origin of this so-called epidemic is believed to have originated among the urban hipsters of downtown Manhattan. These young trendsetters would go out to clubs or just simply be seen wearing these shoes and all at once everyone wanted a pair. Diffusion is a large concept cover throughout these articles. Another underlying idea covered in the uttermost of the two articles is the limitation of spatial interactionthe interaction of people whether through physical contact or by other means of communication. In Globalization in a Bottle this is covere d by the justification of thenumerous other countries to building more Coca-Cola processing plants in their territory. more nations looked at the company as a way to spread Americas change traditions, therefore they refused to allow Coca-Cola to initially be dotd into their cultures. In The Tipping Point Three Rules of Epidemics the author writes about the sexual promiscuity of homosexual men and their so called aid in the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.In turn, this lewdness has led members of society with different sexual orientations to look at the braw community as a negative aspect of modern humanity, hinder spatial interaction between the two. One final concept enter in the two articles is space-time compression, which is the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of modify communications and transportation systems. Due to the advancements in transportation, the soldiers of World War II were able to transport, and therefore facilitate the diffusion of, Coca-Cola. The same is seen with the newfound direct of hush puppies through word-of-mouth with the upgrades in communication. Overall, both articles clearly describe a society in which space-time compression is fully functioning. In conclusion, Globalization in a Bottle and The Tipping Point Three Rules of Epidemics are both distinctly ingrained with the theories of cultural diffusion, limitations of spatial interaction, and space-time compression. The articles give great examples of the three ideas and truly give them meaning.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Electronic books verses paper book Essay

Reading is a big part of our lives, whether you ar exercise for work, school or pleasure, sacred scriptures, newspapers or magazines, it is aroundthing that most people do on a daily basis. Today, there ar different ways you freighter consume hold of either electronically or by paper. Electronic devices are starting to run our lives, by getting an e-book or e- indorser (kindle, nook, iPad, etc) reading could exchange for the average reader. Electronic readers are remediate than paper books. Having an electronic reader fag end be very comfortable.You female genital organ rent or defile books, magazines, and newspapers for free from practical(prenominal) libraries similar to the way you would from your local public library. there are a lot more(prenominal) books available through the virtual(prenominal) library. Since it is a virtual library, you are using Wi-Fi and you raft instantly birth your reading material electronically. Usually when you rent a book from the virtual library, you can shake off it for as long as you like, but are limited to one book month. However, it is quicker than getting in your machine and driving to the library or store to get a book.The thingummy of downloads saves transportation costs and reduces carbon emissions from book distribution and consumer travel to and from bookstores. (Maxwell & Miller, 2013, para. 4). lend books to family or friends is a bit easier with having the psychical book to give. Yet, some devices whitethorn allow you to share downloaded books with others. All things are faulty in life. As convenient as the use of different e-readers can be, technology isnt always reliable. (Taylor, 2013, para.4).Since e-readers are an electronic device, you have to charge the battery however, it can last for a month or two. The screen can classify on e-readers just as easy as a foliate can tear out of a book. You can change the grimace size if you have difficulty reading small print and you can also adjust the screen brightness so you can read in the sunlight or in the dark. Paper books do non need to hold a charge for you to enjoy and the screen provide not ever break, but pages can tear.The font size is what you get and it cannot be altered on what is already printed. It is nice to have a collection of books and you can do that with either an e-reader or paper books. With your e-reader you can carry all of your books at once and your paper books can be on display in your home. E-readers are pretty slim and light-weight, some books can almost double the weight and be bulky. For the average college student, e-readers whitethorn be better so they are not carrying a few different heavy books around campus.Electronic readers are much more diverse than paper books. There are a dictionaries built into e-readers, so you can look up a word just by highlighting it. A great feature to e-readers is it has a bookmark to save your place. Turning the page is as simple as a tilt or swipe along the screen of the e-reader, whereas with a paper book or newspaper you physically flip the pages. Reading with children may be better with paper books, but tablets can be used as an e-reader and games and learning applications can be downloaded for children.Many e-readers also offer net browsing, games, music, movies and an endless array of apps such as The Weather Channel or Microsoft Office to enhance the user experience (Cancio, 2011, para. 3). Children growing up straightaway will probably be reading more things electronically at school, so getting them use to the electronic devices young can be a good thing. With technology advancing so rapidly, it can be hard to keep up with the advancements.Paper books are great if you are a book collector who wants to show off those books and if you do not mind carrying them around. In the long run, e-readers can be more convenient and cost efficient because of the discount on the books being electronic or else of printed. If you en joy reading while traveling, lying in bed, and want to have a large selection of books to choose from and receive them quickly, e-readers are the better option for you. References Brown, Taylor. (2013, October 3). The best of both worlds E-readers vs.traditional books. Cal Times. Retrieved from http//sai. calu. edu/caltimes/index. php/2013/10/03/the-best-of-both-worlds-e-readers-vs-traditional-books/ Cancio, C. (2011, March 7). be e-readers making books obsolete? Retrieved from http//electronics. howstuffworks. com/gadgets/other-gadgets/e-readers-making-books-obsolete. htm Maxwell, R. , Miller, T. (2013, September 5). Greening the media. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http//www. psychologytoday. com/blog/greening-the-media/201309/don-t-be-misled-about-paper-versus-electronic-books

Company Overview of Domestic Direct Competitors of Sime Darby

COMPANY OVERVIEW OF DOMESTIC DIRECT COMPETITORS OF SIME DARBY (GENTING BERHAD) Genting Berhad (Genting), a holding family for the Genting Group, operates resorts, gambling casino and plantations. It also develops properties, manufactures paper and generates electricity. The community primarily operates in Malaysia. It is headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and employs 36,000people. The go with recorded revenues of MYR6,943. 8 zillion (approximately $1,968. 3 million) during the financial portion cease December 2006, an amplification of 27. 3% everyplace 2005. The operating attain of the alliance was MYR3,124. million (approximately $885. 7 million) during fiscal social class 2006, an increase of 22. 7% all over 2005. The net profit was MYR2,242. 5 million in fiscal year 2006, an increase of 23. 8%over 2005. SWOT ANALYSIS Genting is the management and coronation holding company of Genting Group. Through its subsidiaries, the company provides void and cordial rec eption, cruise and sport personal credit linees. Genting also operates plantations, develops and manages piazza, power generation, manufactures and trades paper, explores inunct and mess up and provides tours and travel related services.The move success of its void and hospitality business, driven by a fond transaction from Genting Highlands Resort and its gaming business, has improved overall revenue and profit bugger offth for the company. However, regional competition from cutting void attractions such as Disneyland and Macaus weapons-grade position in the gaming business could weaken the companys unoccupied and hospitality business. Strengths Diverse business portfolio inviolable empty and hospitality air segmentation Strong work of fossil oil and gas lightheadednesses Weak performance of space and manufacturing course of instructions Weak returns Opportunities Growing wealth of Asiatic population Government initiatives to promote Malaysia Strong outlook f or Chinas energy sector upgrade entreat for biodieselThreats Intense competition Natural disasters and epidemics Weakening demand for residential lodgement STRENGTHS Diverse business portfolio Genting has a diversified business portfolio, which includes the management of casinos and resorts, plantations, property development, paper manufacturing and power generation.Aided by strong growth in roughly of its business divisions in fiscal year 2006, Genting managed to record an increase of 27. 3% in its revenues over fiscal year 2005. The revenues from leisure and hospitality division increased 20. 9% power 89. 1% plantation 10%and oil and gas 19. 8%. The company is not overly dependent on any one product or business division. Its diversified business portfolio protects it from downturns in any particular division and reduces business risk. Strong leisure and hospitality division The companys leisure and hospitality division has continuously contributed the highest revenues for Gent ing.The leisure and hospitality division operates the companys hotel, gaming and entertainment businesses. In fiscal year 2006, the division recorded revenues of MYR4,286. 9 million(approximately $1,215. 2 million), contributing 61. 7% to the companys revenues. This increase is mainly due to the higher tawdriness of business from Genting Highlands Resort. For the period 2002-2006, the leisure and hospitality division grew at a CAGR of 12%. The divisions strong performance is attributed to the overall success of the companys theme resorts which argon becoming Malaysias preeminent tourist destinations.The companys gaming business, which operates its casinos both locally and internationally, has also posted strong gos in recent years. Strong performance from the leisure and hospitality division has improved overall revenue and profit growth for Genting. Strong performance of oil and gas Revenues for the oil and gas division of Genting have systematically improved in recent years. A lthough the division contributed just 2% to Gentings revenues in fiscal year 2006, it recorded revenues of MYR141. 3 million (approximately $40. 1 million), a 19. % increase over the previous year. From 2002-2006, the oil and gas division grew at a CAGR of 29%. The phenomenal success of the division is attributed to importantly higher oil prices and increased production. Genting expects an even stronger growth for the oil and gas division in the future from increased oil production in Muturi (Indonesia) and China. WEAKNESS Weak performance of property and manufacturing divisions Despite an increase of 7. 7% in fiscal year 2006, the property divisions revenues have been volatile over the recent years.For the period 2003-2006, the divisions CAGR was -6%, the lowest among all the companys business divisions. Despite a 6% increase in revenues, the manufacturing divisions profit before tax declined 44% in fiscal 2006 over the previous year. Weak performance of these divisions would touc h the overall growth of the company. Weak returns Genting has recorded weak returns in the finally a couple of(prenominal) years. Its return on investments and return on equity for trailing twelve months (TTM) December 2006 were 10. 2% and 13. 5%, respectively, lower than the exertion averages of 10. % and 16. 8% for the same period. Weak returns reflect the inability of the management to deploy assets in profitable avenues, and this could result in decreasing investor confidence. OPPORTUNITIES Growing wealth of Asian population Strong economic growth is expected to improve the pass habits of leisure travellers in the Asian region. A number of Asian countries are expected to record a significant CAGR in gross domestic product per capita in the next quintuplet years, including China (10. 1%), India (8. 1%), Thailand (7%), Singapore and Malaysia(6. 6%).Consequently, disposable income in these countries is expected to grow in the next five years. Indias disposable income records t he highest CAGR of 11. 1%, Thailand, 8. 4%, China, 8. 1%,Malaysia, 5. 5% and Singapore, 5. 3%. Gentings foreign visitors mostly come from these countries. As such, the company stands to profit from the change economic conditions of these markets. Rising income levels will increase demand for leisure and hospitality services. Government initiatives to promote Malaysia The importance of tourism to the Malayan economy has adult considerably in recent years.The joint efforts of Malaysias touristry Ministry and Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board (MTPB) to stimulate tourism activities are expected to result in higher tourist arrivals in Malaysia. The MTPB hosts trade, tourism and consumer fairs around the demesne to promote the countrys culture and tourist attractions. In fiscal year 2005, there were a total of about 15. 8 million international arrivals in Malaysia. Annual targets announce under the Ninth Malaysia contrive (2006-2010) include an increase in international arrivals fro m 17. 3 million in 2006 to 20 million by 2010.In addition, the Malaysian government recently announced a five-day work week for civil servants, which translate to a greater number of holidays available for Malaysians. Also, the presence of low-fare air travel will advance the leisure and tourism industry in Malaysia. This positive outlook of Malaysian tourism presents the company with growth opportunities. Strong outlook for Chinas energy sector withdraw for worldwide energy is expected to compensate strong growth until 2025. Energy demand from China is expected to grow by an average of 3. 2% annually until 2025, to reach a volume of 14. 2million barrels per day (bbl/d).Genting has consistently expanded its oil and gas assets including the scholarship of four power plants in China. China is the worlds second largest consumer of petroleum products and the company stands to benefit from the growth in Chinas energy sector. Rising demand for biodiesel The European Union has a target of replacing 5. 75% of diesel with renewable sources by 2010. In view of this growing European demand for bio fuels, the Malaysian government is encouraging the use of typewriter ribbon oil to the production of biodiesel. The country is also preparing to change from diesel to bio-fuels in the approach future.It has stipulated that from 2007, all diesel sold in Malaysia must contain5% palm oil. The plantation division of Genting is involved mainly in oil palm plantations, palm oil milling and related activities. It could therefore take advantage of the new opportunity to improve its revenue growth. THREATS Intense competition Gentings leisure and hospitality division is expected to face stiff competition from new leisure attractions in Asia. Disneyland Hong Kong, which opened in September 2005, has emerged as a fundamental competitor The Disneyland attracted approximately 5. million visitors in its first year of military operation and is expected to increase to about 10 million annually. Genting is also go about competition from casinos in Macau. Macau has at least fourteen casinos, of which the biggest is the Casino Lisboa. quaternary casino resorts are scheduled to be launched in the next few years in Macau. Disneyland Hong Kong and casinos in Macau could draw tourists away from Gentings leisure and hospitality locations, which would reduce revenue growth. Natural disasters and epidemics The leisure and hospitality is vulnerable to native disasters and epidemics.In 2003, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) adversely affected the pencil lead Cruises operation. Star Cruises was also badly affected by the tsunami in 2004. In 2005-2006, outbreak of bird flu affected the leisure and travel industry including cruises. Natural disasters and outbreak of epidemics such as SARS and bird flu in the future could reduce tourist traffic to resorts, casinos and cruise ships of Genting, which would institutionalize revenue growth down. Weakeni ng demand for residential housing Demand for residential properties in Malaysia is weakening.Demand for housing in 2006 was lower than 2005. Moreover, the Malaysian GDP growth for 2007 is expected to be 5. 0% down from 5. 8%in 2006 which could have a corresponding effect on Malaysian housing. The company has a significant presence in residential housing. It has recently launched devil residential properties Asiatic Cheng Perdana and Asiatic Indahpura. Excess supply in the Malaysian residential property market and the consequent fall in property prices would negatively impact the performance of Gentings property division.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Bluetooth Technology

Technology already tracks or monitors animal(prenominal)s, people, vehicles and other objects to quench the need for constant human observation. These technologies need to be sm both, economical and lay waste to a borderline amount of power. Bluetooth applied cognition is creationness utilize extensively in advance-held constructions and wireless computing Pico Communications beca persona of its characteristics mentioned higher up. This invent aims to use Bluetooth engineering science to monitor and track animals in the wild. More specifically, this project deals with the off-loading of info from a device situated on an animal.The aim of this literature survey is to analyze the Bluetooth technology, focusing on routing in Bluetooth interlocks, as well as accepted animal track and supervise technologies. Current technologies used in tracking and monitoring Many of these projects overhear use of the Global Positioning outline (GPS), Global System for Mobile (GSM) or directional radio contagious disease tracking. One of them is described in Save the Elephants GSM tracking project, sponsored by Safari. com in Kenya, which makes use of the GPS trunk to gather muddleal information of tags placed on elephants Douglas-Hamilton, I. t al (February 2004). These tags to a fault have GSM modules that bear the locational info to be downloaded periodically. object lensives of this project be to develop small tags that have a long electric battery life, be ratty and light. Before the safari. com project, haemorrhagic fever (Very High Frequency) radio was used to download the GPS data from the animals about every 3 months. Sending data using VHF requires a large amount of power expending, indeed downloads were only done every three months. GSM technology lowers this power consumption enabling more regular data retrieval.Data, such as that elephants normally travel about 10km a day that can laissez extend toer 30km or more, was collected usin g this technology. The Kenya wildlife service use this knowledge to fancy things like human-animal interaction and fence positioning. A company called Digital tumble has developed a chip that is embedded into animals Hostetter, J (April 2003). While these chips do not produce locational information, they enable a person to electronically happen upon an animal as well as get its current torso temperature. The company is looking at using these bio chips to track an animals blood stuff and hormonal changes Hostetter, J (April 2003).The bio chips are very small and light but data can only be collected with a hand held reader which provides the chip with power via magnetic induction, similar to RFID technology. Most animal tracking projects are interested in the movements of animals. We are interested in the interaction of animals and possibly data concerning individual animals using the technology being developed by Digital Angle. Because we aim to only use Bluetooth technology (an d not GPS), an animals location could be roughly plotted by tagging material positions, for example watering holes and trees.The tracking and monitoring systems above use VHF or GSM technologies to download data from animals. We want to look at the feasibleness of using Bluetooth networks to download this data. Bluetooth is suited to this application because it is small, light and uses a minimal amount of power, whereas GSM and GPS devices have a short battery life and are large and heavy. In an application that does not involve animals, Ron Alterovitz from the computer science department at Caltech University in California has done a look project involving message routing over a Bluetooth scatternet. Alterovitz, R (2001) His aim was to make wireless-enabled vehicles communicate darn in motion. The ad-hoc properties of piconets and scatternets enable the vehicles to pass messages betwixt them date they are in motion. The vehicles were linked up to a positioning system and set to run around in a chiliad1000 cm room. each(prenominal) vehicle was able to transmit up to a distance of 250cm. The vehicles were left to move around the room randomly while the positioning system and vehicles passed messages amongst each other to stop them crashing.The routing tables, used to pass messages, were only allowed to be updated at set intervals. It was rear that message packets were befuddled if the speed of the vehicles was increased while the routing interval was kept the same Alterovitz, R (June 2001). Although Bluetooth has been used for tracking small autonomous vehicles, thither is no read of the use of this technology to track animals. However, wireless devices, for example Bluetooth enabled cell phones, could be used to track human beings. This raises ethical and privacy issues Potter, B (November 2003).Bluetooth as the Underlying Technology The above technologies aim to provide a subject matter of tracking or message-passing through the use of devices that are physically small, use minimal amounts of power and support an ad-hoc type of communication. Bluetooth supports realistic data order of up to 600Kbps and claims to make a battery last from 50% to ccc% longer than other wireless technologies PicoCommunications, (November 2002). There are two configurationes of Bluetooth device. The score 2 radio allows a range of ten meters while class 1 radios allow for transmission over 100 meters.Bluetooth operates in the license-free 2. 4GHz great deal making use of frequency hopping at a rate of 1600 hop per second. Although Bluetooth has limitations in its transfer speed and communication distance, its market share is rise while 802. 11 (WiFi) has slowed down in its growth Dursch, A. et all (December 2003). The go interest in Bluetooth will increase production, causing the already cheap technology to become easily obtainable. The Bluetooth heap Illustration 1The Bluetooth Stack Each Bluetooth packet has a fixed format that starts wit h a 72-bit access code.This is followed by a 54-bit header containing wrongdoing correction, retransmission and instruction information. Finally the packet contains a payload of 0 to 2745 bits. Three methods, Forward Error Correction (FEC), instinctive Repeated Request (ARQ) and Cyclic Redundancy Checks (CRC) are used for error correction during Bluetooth communication Forum Nokia (April 2003). This project is interested in the following Bluetooth stack layers The Link Manager Protocol (LPM) layer is responsible for setting up the links between Bluetooth devices and deals with master/ knuckle down switching, low power modes, quantify offsets and packet size negotiation.This layer, although not critical to this project, also handles the substitution of corroboration and encryption information. The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) enables multiplexing of the protocols above it by segmenting and reassembling packets Pico Communications inc. The Service Discove ry Protocol (SDP) enables Bluetooth devices to advertise and clutch services. SDP passes bitmasks, representing advertised services, to all backbone nodes. This allows other devices to discover the type and location of a service on a Bluetooth network quickly Nordbotten, N, A. et al (2004).RFCOMM is a serial port emulation protocol enabling RS232 control and data signaling over Bluetooth. It allows services such as the blot to Point Protocol (PPP) to be used over Bluetooth. IP is the timeworn protocol used on the Internet Pico Communications inc. Bluetooth profiles Bluetooth profiles describe the primary(prenominal) usage models of Bluetooth. The current Bluetooth specification contains four general profiles. Forum Nokia (April 2003) The Generic gateway visibility defines the discovery of other Bluetooth devices, link management and connectivity, security levels and viridity format requirements for user interfaces.All Bluetooth devices have to support this profile and all othe r profiles require and use it. The Service Discovery Application Profile defines procedures for a Bluetooth application to discover services advertised by another(prenominal) Bluetooth device, and should be followed should this project make use of services during implementation. The Serial style Profile defines the Bluetooth requirements for setting up emulated serial cable connections. This profile is also an option should this project transfer data over RS232 connections.The Generic Object Exchange Profile is used by applications that need object exchange capabilities. This profile is also an option should we want to model our data as objects and pass these objects from device to device and then finally to a data sink Forum Nokia (April 2003). Ad-Hoc Bluetooth Networks Bluetooth enabled devices form ad-hoc networks when they come into contact with one another. These networks are construct using scatternet and piconet formation algorithms as described by Law, C. et al (2001). am idst 1 and 7 devices can form a piconet.One device is designated to be the master. This decision is made by each device generating a random number determining whether the device will assume to be the master and seek buckle downs or assume to be a striver and scan for the master. Because only 7 nodes are allowed to participate in a piconet, scatternets are formed by linking many a(prenominal) piconets together via share slave nodes. The number of piconets to which a device belongs is termed its degree. A master node in a piconet may only have a degree of one, kernel a master node may not be shared between two piconets.The shared slaves are time multiplexed between the piconets to which it belongs and data sent between the piconets must be sent via the shared slave Law, C. et al, (2001). The time it takes for data to be passed through a shared slave is dependent on the manner in which the shared slave switches between piconets. Shared slaves need to have timed rendezvous points w ith piconet masters in order to exchange data Misic, J. et al (February 2004). The masters and shared slaves are collectively referred to as back bone nodes of the formed scatternet.The piconet and scatternet formation algorithms allow nodes to move and migrate between piconets and allow small piconets to be incorporated Law, C. et al (2001). These ad-hoc properties of piconets and scatternets enable data to be exchanged between many Bluetooth devices while those devices are moving between piconets within a scatternet, efficaciously enabling the devices to physically move around while data is being exchanged amongst them. Conclusion This literature search has found no state that Bluetooth has been used to track or monitor animals in the wild.It has however found many applications where Bluetooth networks have been used for mobile devices needing to exchange data. The literature shows that there is a need for small, inexpensive animal tracking devices that consume a minimal amount of power. It is also shown that Bluetooth is already being used for hold and mobile computing applications for these same reasons. Our aim is to build upon the device and network technologies surveyed in this paper, to determine the feasibility of a Bluetooth-based animal tracking and monitoring system, which has a low degree of human probe effect.


Common type of story is the metaphor, which presents a moral, or lesson about t intercepter-hearted behavior. Fables unremarkably feature zoologys behaving and spea pouf as humans. Among the close widely known are those from the ancient Sanskrit Pancatantra (Five Chapters), which was first written buck in India perhaps 2,000 years ago. Known in Europe as The Fables of Bidpai, this collection presents animal characters in entertaining stories and poetry. many anformer(a)(prenominal) European animal fables fork out at least in part descended from the Pancatantra. Among the most famous Western fables are those attri aloneed to Aesop, a (probably fictitious) slave from ancient Greece.One of the best-known of Aesops stories is The emmet and the Grasshopper, which teaches the need to be industrious and save for the future during times of plenty. Stories that depict out lessons are c every(prenominal)ed fables. Nearly everyone knows the fable about the three comminuted pigs. They leave home and go out into the world to make their fortunes. Of course, they have to build places in which to resist. The first teentsy pig makes his family line of straw. The number little pig also takes things easily, building his house of sticks. The third little pig works hard and long to make a house of bricksa grave, sturdy house.Along comes a wolf who blows good deal the houses of straw and sticks and chuck the two lazy little pigs. All his huffing and puffing, however, advisenot blow down the house of bricks. In this fable the three little pigs show human characteristics. Two little pigs are shiftless and meet an unhappy end through their own fault. The hard-working little pig earns the reward of a good life. History of fables In very early times people told stories in which animals talk. By their actions the animals show how foolish or wise people can be. Folklore scholars think that fables probably originated among the Semitic peoples of the Middle East.The tales spread to India and then atomic number 74 to Greece. Many fables go back to an ancient Sanskrit collection from India c exclusivelyed Pancatantra (Five Chapters). These stories were told and retold through numerous generations. Eventually they reached Greece. The Greeks added detail and action and made Aesop master of all the fables. The Romans translated Aesops fables into Latin. They were translated into french in the 13th century. The first of many versions of the folktale of Reynard the bewilder appeared in about the 12th century. Fables of Aesops The greatest teller of fables was Aesop (see Aesop).He was believed to be a slave in ancient Greece. His stories are simple moral lessons illustrated usually by the actions and speech of animals. Some of his best-known fables are The Lion and the Mouse, The bedevil and the Stork, The Hare and the Tortoise, The Wolf in Sheeps Clothing, The Fox and the Grapes, The Frogs Desiring a King, and The Shepherd son and the Wolf. In Aesops The Lion and the Mouse the great, strong social lion is tired of hunting. He lies down to sleep under a shady tree. A grovel runs over his face and awakens him.The angry lion is about to crush the piffling mouse with his huge paw, but the mouse begs so hard to live that the lion lets him go. Some time later the lion is caught in a hunters trap. He roars with surprise and fury. The little mouse recognizes the roar and races to the trap. He gnaws the ropes and sets the lion free. The powerful lion is grateful for the help that his tiny friend gave him. The king of beasts thinks to himself Sometimes the weakest can help the strongest. Aesops The Fox and the Stork shows that a tricky psyche does not always win. A pull someones leg invites a stork to dinner.The play tricks serves soup in a shallow dish. The poor stork can wet save the end of his long narrow bill in the soup. The sly fox makes false apologies and laps up all the food. The stork pretends to be satisfied and invites the fox to dinner. When the fox comes a few days later, he finds the food served in a tall saccade with a narrow neck. Down in the jar goes the storks long bill. All the fox can do is lick his chops. This fable may have suggested the old proverb he who laughs last laughs best. Many proverbs and maxims are expressions of the wisdom found in fables.Some of these sayings and the fables from which they come are listed aft(prenominal) the History of Fables section. Fables by La Fontaine Another great teller of fables was jean de La Fontaine (see La Fontaine). He wrote in France in the 17th century. La Fontaine based many of his fables on those of Aesop. In the writings of both men are The Fox and the Crow, The Dove and the Ant, The Fox and the Grapes, The Maid and the Pail of Milk, and The Fox and the Stork. Some of La Fontaines titles vary slightly from Aesops. The Fox and the Crow tells that a fox sees a crow ith a piece of cheeseflower in her beak settle in a tree. The fox wan ts the cheese. He looks up at the crow and says, Good day, Mistress Crow. How well you look forthwith I feel sure that your voice must surpass that of other birds, just as your figure does. Let me hear you sing but one song so I may greet you as queen of the birds. The crow begins to caw her best.As soon as she opens her mouth, the piece of cheese falls to the ground and is snapped up by the fox. That will do, he says. That was all I wanted. In exchange for your cheese, Ill give you a piece of advice for the future. Do not trust flatterers. Another of La Fontaines fables is The Animals Sick of the Plague. The lion, who is king of the beasts, asks all the animals to confess their sins. The guiltiest will be sacrificed to save the rest. The lion begins by confessing that he has devoured an appalling number of sheep and the shepherd, too. Reynard the Fox defends the king. His plea is applauded by the lions flatterers. Finally a poor donkey is sacrificed after he confesses that he h as eaten grass on the monastery grounds. The moral of the tale is Thus do the courts acquit the strong and end of the world the weak as therefore wrong.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

All Contracts Are Agreements but Not All Agreements

According to section 2(a) of Indian Contract Act states that, all promise on every set of promises forming the consideration for each some other an compact. An savvy is a form of cross reference between contrasting parties, which may be written, oral and lies upon the honor of the parties for its fulfillment rather than be in any way enforceable. It is also a fact that an proportionateness is a proposal and its acceptance, by which two or more person or parties promises to do abstain from doing an act. But a pore harmonise to section 2(h) of the Indian Contract Act, An intellect enforceable by practice of justice is a contract.It is effloresce these definitions that the two particles of a contract atomic number 18 (a) reason Contractual Obligation (b) Enforceability by Law. For Example X invites his friend to burnt umber and the latter accepts the invitation. This is a social understanding non a contract because it does non take any legal obligation. We can say that (a) exclusively contracts be agreements, (b) But all agreements are not contracts. (a) All Contracts are Agreements For a Contract to be thither an agreement is essential without an agreement, in that location can be no contract.As the saying goes, where there is smoke, there is produce for without fire, there can be no smoke. It could be said, Where there is contract, there is agreement without an agreement there can be no contract. Just as a fire gives birth to smoke, in the same way, an agreement gives birth to a contract. Another essential element of a contract is the legal obligation for the parties to the contract there are many agreements that do not entail any legal obligations. As such, these agreements cannot be called contracts. For ExampleA gives his car to B for repair and B asks for Ksh. 2000 for the repair works. A agrees to pay the price and B agrees to repair the car. The agreement imposes an obligation on both. The third element of a contract is that the agreement must be enforceable by Law. If one party fails to support his promise, the other has the right to go the court and force the defaulter to keep on his promises. There are other elements are 1. Offer and acceptance, 2. Legal obligation, 3. lawful consideration, 4. Valid object, 5. Agreement not being declared void by Law, 6. Free consent, 7.Agreement being written and registered, 8. Capacity to contract, 9. Possibility of performance from what has been discussed. It is exonerated that all contracts are agreements. (b) All Agreements are not Contracts An agreement is termed a contract only when it is enforceable by law. All agreements are not necessarily legally enforceable. It can rightly be said that an agreement has a much wider background than a contract. For example that agreements are not legally binding are an invitation to dinner or to go for a walk and its acceptance. These are agreements not contracts.An agreement does not necessarily inculpate a legal obligat ion on the parties to the agreement. It is import here to clarify what exactly is an obligation. Obligation is a legal tie which imposes upon a person or persons the necessity of doing or abstaining from doing definite act or acts. An agreement need not necessarily be within the framework of law and be legally enforceable. If it is, then it is a contract. A promises B to do physical harm to C whom, the latter does not like and B promises to pay A Ksh. 1000 to do that, it cannot be termed as a contract because such an act would be against the law.Any agreement of which the object or consideration is unlawful is void and cannot be called a contract. It would be clear from what has been said so far that an agreement has a much wider scope than a contract. An Agreement implies fulfilling some agreed condition. It does not necessarily imply that the stipulated conditions conform to the law and are enforceable by it. It may be said that an agreement is the genus of which contract is the species. It also makes it clear that all agreements are not contracts but all contracts are agreements.

What Are the Main Causes of Food Insecurity in the World Today?

What are the main ingests of sustenance in security department in the world today? Outline and evaluate 2 or 3 possible stems to fare hazard problems Currently, millions of slew across the globe anguish from under- feed and starve. In 2007, the UN (United Nations) estimated that there are approximately 850 million people who convey undernourishment in the world today. It also reported that 799 million malnourish people live in exploitation countries, most of which are on the Afri bathroom and Asiatic continents.Reportedly, the study contribution to this international issue has been diet peril (FAO, 2008, p. 8). It affects people ranging from individual to national level with various engenders, curiously neglect of cultivation and native casualty in developing countries (FAO, 2005, no pageboy given). This essay will identify two main serves of forage insecurity which have been state above and also it will enlist and evaluate two possible solutions to pabulum insecurity problems up cultivation and humanitarian support dust. It is necessary to define the meaning of food security before its causes deal be considered.Commonly, the concept of food insecurity is the demesne of being unable to have both corporal and economic irritate to enough and nutritious food (WHO, 2008). Socially, people who are in this separate often cannot maintain household food supplies and suffer from under nutrition (FAO, 2005). This situation prevails when nations lack sustainable access to sufficient, safe and, nutritious food for productive and health living (WHO, 2008). consort to an online journal by Getachew (2008, no page given), neglect of agriculture has been ascribed as the major cause of food insecurity from short-terminus shocks.Other search illustrates that innate disasters can have significant repairs on food security from long-term shocks (FAO, 2005). Millions of people around the world are affected on food insecurity by various issues e specially downgrading agriculture and natural disaster. Having outlined the exposition of food security, it is now possible to consider the main causes of food insecurity. thither are various factors that contribute to food insecurity in opposite parts of the world. First, neglect of agriculture especially in developing countries is such(prenominal) a key ause of chronic food insecurity (Makoni, 2010, no page given).According to Khasnobis (2009, p230), the come of foreign aid allocated to farming(a) activities has decreased from 19 per cent in 1980 to 4. 5 per cent in 2009. Nevertheless, only a few organizations have attained the 2003 Maputo Declaration which required each(prenominal) nation to allocate 10 per cent of its budget to agriculture. It can be said that this has consequently led to poor infrastructure, along with poor food-storage facilities, which bump such nations in suffering food shortage in oddball of crop failure.Indeed, food insecurity is likely to be spe ctacularer in areas with lower agricultural knowledge (USDA, 2010, no page given). According to an on-line article by Makoni (2010, no page given), 80 percent of creation in Africa depend on agriculture and people become to a long extent poor because of low productivity and consequently, 30 percent suffer from hunger daily. Therefore, it could be argued that this evidence illustrates that chronic neglect of agriculture can withdraw to low productivity, poverty, and eventually chronic food insecurity.Secondly, natural disasters can be considered as another(prenominal) major cause of food insecurity. According to an on-line article in FAO (2008, no page given), in the past two decades, the flesh of emergent onset natural disasters including floods, hurricanes and earthquakes has increased dramatically from 14 per cent in the 1980s to 27 per cent since 2000. In the resolving power of this, the number of food insecurity has increased sharply during the same menses (FAO, 2008, no page given). Food security is affected by natural disasters through its advert on local and national food systems.Recently, the impact of natural disasters has created a fall in agricultural product prices and and then this current price led to inconvenient conditions for farmers in developing countries (FAO, 2002, no page given). Under the circumstance, producers use less m 1y for advances on the reputation of farming land such as fertilizers and manure which are ordinarily not affordable by poor farmers (FAO, 2002, no page given). thusly it causes a bad effect on food production in developing countries and eventually food insecurity.Moreover, when natural disasters occur, poor households suffer great economic losses, resulting in deepening their poverty further. These losses can throttle them in food insecurity. As a result, it seems that natural disasters are peerless of the causes of food insecurity. Now, the remainder of this essay will discuss solutions for the two ca uses of food insecurity which have been argued above. In fix up to crystallize food insecurity problems, improving agriculture can be one of the solutions. International donors and the government in developing countries had neglected agriculture for a long current and it causes food insecurity.In 2008, the World Bank, in its annual development report, admitted that greater investment in agriculture is requisite to solve food insecurity problems (Makoni, 2010, no page given). Investment in agriculture can found the governments to ensure that farm materials and equipment are available to farmers at fair prices. Moreover, government is also able to ensure that farmers in the rural areas have comfortable and convenient access to the necessary farming requirements (FAO, 2008, no page given). This can be achieved by setting up stores for supplying these materials and equipment in every region at strategic places (Khasnobis, 2009, p231).Thus, it can be said that improving agricultu re including investment for the availability of materials and equipment can allow people to embark high productivity and it leads to solve food insecurity problems. However, it requires an enormous amount of investment in these materials and equipment and so it is not a constructive solution if the developing countries assets are in a bad shape. Furthermore, it is essential to underwrite that humour change problems still affect on agriculture melioratement in developing countries even the governments invest in these materials and equipment.Recently, impact of clime change on food production in developing countries has been change magnitude and at this rate, its impact will be double by 2060 (FAO, 1996, no page given). This means that it is also necessary to invest in agriculture to increase the resilience of present food production systems referable to climate change problems. For example, investment in drip systems and sprinklers enables farmers to produce more food with les s water (Postel, 2001, no page given). However, it is a long term solution and a king-sized amount of funds is needed to oblation these systems to every farmer.It could be said that investment in agricultural materials and equipment is one of the solutions to solve the food insecurity problems, and it should be concerned that investment to improve the food production systems is also needed because of climatic changes. However, a large amount of funds and time is needed for these solutions so, it can be said that these solutions are not so practical for food insecurity problems. Secondly, improving humanitarian aid system for natural disasters can be another solution for food insecurity due to the fact that natural disasters cause food insecurity.When natural disasters happen in developing countries, it causes the direct physical reparation on crops and the indirect impacts especially, loss of potential production due to deteriorated the nature of farming land, and increased produ ctions cost (UN, 2008). Thus, when natural disasters especially sudden onset disasters happen, the spry humanitarian aid, particularly medical support, relief supplies and food aid for disaster refugees is needed as it causes food insecurity eventually.According to an on-line article in Oxfam International (2009, no page given), the number of people affected by national disasters will increase by 54 per cent to 375 million people in the next fivesome years. However, the aid response is fickle, too little and not good enough. oneness of the reasons for this is political preferences make aid unfair (Oxfam, 2009, no page given). For example, in 2004, while an average of only $23 was spent for each dupe of the crisis in Chad, an average of $1,241 was spent per person affected by the Asian tsunami (Oxfam, 2009, no page given).Therefore, it is essential to improve the immediate aid system promptly without political preferences so that it is possible to prevent the agricultural injures from spreading. As it is mentioned earlier, backward aid for natural disasters is important to prevent agricultural damages. Moreover, proactive aid is also needed to prepare for disasters to decrease the damage from it (Oxfam, 2009, no page given). Investment for researching data on past natural disasters can be one of the examples. It is an effective but not tripping solution without the help of national governments.The United Nations should propose some ideas for approach of proactive aid. It is a solution with long-term effects which reduce the impact of natural disasters and mitigate food insecurity. Food insecurity is highly babelike on agricultural production and is caused by natural disasters. Therefore, both an immediate aid and a proactive aid for disasters are needed to solve food insecurity problems. It is necessary that national governments help to improve these aid systems. In conclusion, this essay has identified that neglect of agriculture and natural disaster ar e the main causes of food insecurity today.Both of these causes lead to great economic losses, poverty and eventually food insecurity in developing countries. These causes are not directly related to food insecurity. However, they indirectly cause the major peoples food insecurity problems. In order to solve food insecurity problems, improving agriculture by investing for agricultural materials and present food production systems could be one of the major solutions. Another solution for food insecurity is improving immediate and proactive aid systems. Thus, it could be argued that both long-term and short-term solutions are needed for food insecurity problems.

Friday, February 22, 2019

A Review of Rene Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy

INTRODUCTION This article is a stubmary of Rene Descartes Meditation on freshman Philosophy. It seeks, as permitted by the Meditator himself, in his letter to the reader, to examine his treatise with the misadventure of instituting change if necessary. I uncertain(p)ty non, if you s savings bank condescend to pay so much regard to this treatise as to be pass oning in the starting time place to correct it (for seeful non simply of my kind-heartedity, but princip tot individually(prenominal) in allyy likewise of my ignorance, I do non affirm that it is free from errors) in the second place to supply what is wanting in it, to faultless what is incomplete, and to disclose more than than ample illustration where it is demanded, or at least to exhibit these defects to myself that i may endeavour to remedy them1He starts his conjectures which spans over a stopover of six days by sitting himself, I d ar say, comfortably, by the fire side conjecture I SKEPTICAL DOUB T IN THE First Meditation, the meditator expounds the groundworks on which we may doubt in the main all amours, and especially material objects, so long at least, as we make no different foundations for the sciences than those we provoke before now possessed. The meditator was struck by how m invariablyy false things he had believed, and by how doubtful the structure of beliefs he had base on them.He realized that if he wanted to establish anything in the sciences that was stable and likely to last, he unavoidable bonnie at a time to mash everything completely and start again from the foundations. I dissolve do this with start demonstrate that all my beliefs ar false, which is probably more than I could ever manage. My reasonableness tells me that as well as withholding assent from propositions that be simply false, I should in addition withhold it from unmatchables that be non completely genuine and indubitable.So all I need, for the purpose of rejecting al l my opinions, is to unwrap in to apiece one of them at least some reason for doubt. I sewer do this without going through with( relate) them one by one, which would take forever once 1 Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy, (Start Publishing LLC eBook edition, 2012) kobo file. the foundations of a building feel been undermined, the rest collapses of its take in accord so I give go straight for the basic principles on which all my former beliefs rested. Whatever I choose accepted until now as most true has cum to me through my senses. save occasionally I thrust found that they have shitd me, and it is unwise to trust completely those who have deceived us flat once. 2 The Meditator goes pass on to say that although our sense perceptions deceive us yet one could not by chance doubt all of what one has return to make love through the senses for example, his seating by the fire, clothed in a winter stuffing g give birth or that he is truly in possession of this fortify and legs. This led to what is popularly refer ruby-red to as the dream production occupation where he argues that I often have perceptions very much like the ones I usually have in sensation while I am dreaming. in that respect are no de delimited signs to distinguish dream sleep together from waking experience. hence, It is feasible that I am dreaming right now and that all of my perceptions are false3 Objection to the dream argument It could be argued that the range of mountainss we form in dreams quarter completely be composed of bits and pieces of real experience combined in novel representations. Therefore, Although we have reason to doubt the surface perceptual qualities of our perception, we have no reason to doubt the properties that we descry the basic components of our experience to have. In authorityicular, at that place is no reason to doubt the mathematical properties that material bodies in general have. )4 The First Meditation washbowl thu s be seen as presenting skeptical doubts as a subject of study in their own right. Certainly, skepticism is a much discussed and hotly debated topic in philosophy, notwithstanding today. Descartes was noticeably the first to raise the mystifying question of how we stop strike to get laid with certainty anything about the creative activity around us. The musical theme is not that these doubts are 2 Rene Descartes 1639.Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the personifyence of divinity and the decidedion amid the human mortal and the automobile trunk. marxists. org. n. p. n. d.. http//www. marxists. org/reference/archive/ descartes/1639/meditations. htm (accessed April 10, 2013). 3 Banach, David. An Outline of Descartess Meditations on First Philosophy. anslem. edu. germinal Commons License. 2006. http//www. anselm. edu/homepage/dbanach/medol. htm (accessed April 10, 2013). 4 Banach, An Outline philosophy. op. cit. robable, but that their possibility stop never be entirely ruled out. And if we fag end never be certain, how groundwork we claim to grapple anything? Skepticism cuts straight to the heart of the Western philosophic enterprise and its attempt to provide a certain foundation for our cognition and understanding of the world. It outhouse even be pushed so far as to be read as a challenge to our very whimsy of discerningity. Skepticism gougenot be lived, we as individuals keepnot possibly doubt everything as this will lead to an multitudinous regress.We should note that Descartes doubt is a methodological and rational doubt. That is, the Meditator is not in force(p) doubting everything at random, but is providing solid reasons for his doubt at each stage. For instance, he rejects the possibility that he magnate be mad, since that would undercut the reasonableness that motivates his doubt. Descartes is get a lineing to set up this doubt indoors a rational framework, and needs to maintain a claim to ratio nality for his arguments to proceed. MEDITATION II OF THE NATURE OF THE HU opus MIND AND THAT IT IS MORE advantageously KNOWN THAN THE BODYDay two of the meditation sees the meditator still in doubt, following Archimedes, the meditator attempts to find a starting point or at least one point which he would not doubt. I will nevertheless, make an effort, and try anew the analogous path on which I had entered yesterday, that is, proceed by casting aside all that admits of the slightest doubt, not less than if I had go outed it to be absolutely false and will continue always in this track until I shall find something that is certain, or at least, if I can do no tree trunk more, until I shall know with certainty that there is nothing certain.Archimedes, that he might transport the entire globe from the place it diligent to another, demanded totally a point that was firm and immovable so, also, I shall be entitled to entertain the highest expectations, if I am fortunate enough to d iscover just one thing that is certain and indubitable. 5 Recalling the previous meditation, he tells that what he sees does not embody, that his memory is faulty, that he has no senses and no body, that extension, impetus and place are mistaken notions. Perhaps, he remarks, the only certain thing remaining is that there is no certainty. Descartes, On Philosophy. op. cit. kobo file The meditator hence wonders, is he not, the source of these meditations? (that is after doubting his existence of his body and senses) does that mean he cannot exist either? He has also noted that the physical world does not exist, which might also seem to imply his nonexistence. And yet to have these doubts, he moldiness(prenominal) exist. For an evil demon to mislead him in all these cunnuing ways, he moldiness exist in separate to be misled. There must be an I that can doubt, be deceived, and so on.He formulates the noteworthy cogito argument, saying So that it must, in fine, be maintained, all things be maturely and carefully considered, that this proposition (pronunciatum) I am, I exist, is necessarily true each time it is expressed by me or conceived in my assessment. 6 The cogito argument is so called be endeavour of its Latin formulation in the Discourse on order cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am). This is possibly the most famous single line in all of philosophy, and is generally considered the starting point for modern Western philosophy.In it, the Meditator finds his first grip on certainty after the radical skepticism he posited in the First Meditation. The cogito presents a plan of the world and of knowledge in which the header is something that can know itself better than it can know anything else. 7 The latter part of the Second Meditation dwells largely on the Wax Argument with which the meditator hopes to coming into court that we come to know things through the intellect rather than through the senses and that we know the read/write head bette r than anything else. His argument focuses on the process of change by which solid rebel melts into a liquid puddle.The senses seem to tell us things about the world, and Descartes admits that what we know about the solid piece of wax we know through the senses. The senses can similarly inform us about the liquified wax, but they cannot tell us that the melted wax and the solid wax are one and the same. Nor, the meditator argues, can the mood. Only the intellect can raise and make sense of what we perceive. The senses only perceive a disconnected derange of information the intellect is what helps us to understand it. 6 7 ibid, kobo file. SparkNotes Editors. SparkNote on Meditations on First Philosophy. SparkNotes LLC. n. d.. ttp// www. sparknotes. com/philosophy/meditations/ (accessed April 12, 2013). MEDITATION III. OF GOD THAT HE EXISTS At the beginning of Meditation III, the meditator finds a whole host of fairnesss which he holds we can know for certain. These truths invo lve the causal or representational scheme of perception. This theory holds that we nowadays perceive humors which are caused by objects in the external world. Descartes claims that we can know for certain that we are seeing a fact idea (of the sun or the stars or this elbow dwell or that tree), what we dont know for certain is if there is a sun or stars or a room or tree ausing our ideas). The meditator goes on to produce a criterion for truths which we can know for absolute certainty. He does this by reflecting on those truths which he has already discovered using the method of doubt, and determines that what they all have in prevalent is that the ideas in them are all clear and different. Thus any truth composed of clear and distinct ideas can be known for certain. Descartes therefore proceeds to try to move from the foundation, to determine what truths might be based on those truths. The first thing he must do, as it turns out is to rotate that perfection existsWithout doing this he cannot get rid of the Evil behemoth hypothesis. 8 When considering divinity as a substance that is infinite, eternal, immutable, independent, supremely intelligent, supremely powerful, and which cleard both myself and everything else, the Meditator realizes that the idea of God must have far more objective candor than he has formal reality God is an infinite substance whereas he is only a finite substance. Since the idea of God cannot have originated in himself, he concludes that God must be the cause of this idea and must therefore necessarily exist.The Meditator counters the argument that he might conceive of an infinite organism through negation, that is, through conceiving of it in bank line to his own finite organismness. Doubts and desires come from an understanding that we lack something, and we would not be aware of that lack unless we were aware of a more perfect organism that has those things which we lack. While he can doubt the existence of other thi ngs, he cannot doubt the existence of God, since he has such a clear and distinct perception 8OSU. the meditations. n. p. n. d. ttp//oregonstate. edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/meditations. html (accessed April 13,2013). of Gods existence. The idea has infinite objective reality, and is therefore more likely to be true than any other idea. The Meditator becausece entertains the possibility that he may be supremely perfect, that all his deficiencies are potentialities within him, and that he is slowly improving toward perfection. If perfection is a dominance within him, then it is plausible that the idea of God could be conceived in him without any outside cause.The Meditator rejects this possibility for three reasons first, God is all authentic and not at all potential second, if he is constantly improving, he will never attain that perfection where there is no room for improvement and third, potential being is not being at all the idea of God must be caused by something with infinite essential being. If the Meditator could exist without God, he would have come to be out of herself, or from his parents, or from some other being less perfect than God. If he derived his existence from himself, there is no reason that he should have doubts and desires.He also cannot escape this reasoning by supposing he has always existed and never had to come into being. There is no reason that he should continue to exist unless there is some force that preserves him, that becomes him anew at every instant. As a thinking thing, he should be aware of that power of rescue though it came from within him. If his parents or some other imperfect being created him, this creator must have endowed him with the idea of God. If this creator is a finite being, we must still ask with respect to it how it came to possess the idea of an infinite God.We can trace this chain back through myriad creators, but we must ultimately conclude that the idea of God can originate only in God, and not in some finite being. We can thus sum up the third meditation all idea must be caused, and the cause must be as real as the idea. If I have any idea of which I cannot be the cause, then something besides me must exist. All ideas of material reality could have their origin within me. But the idea of God, an infinite and perfect being, could not have originated from within me, since I am finite and imperfect. I have an idea of God, and it can only have been caused by God.Therefore God exists. 9 Anderson, JT. Summary of Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy. n. p. 1999. http//home. sandiego. edu/ janderso/10/descart. html. ( accessed April 13, 2013). 9 MEDITATION IV OF TRUTH AND ERROR The Fourth Meditation, subtitled Truth and falsity, opens with the Meditator reflecting on the ground he has covered so far, observing that all his certain knowledge, and in particular the most certain knowledge that God exists, comes from the intellect, and not from the senses or the mood. No w that he is certain of Gods existence, a striking deal more can follow.First, he knows that God would not deceive him, since the will to deceive is a sign of weakness or malice, and Gods perfection would not go forth it. Second, if God created him, God is responsible for his judgment, and so his faculty of judgment must be infallible so long as he uses it correctly. one(a) wonders then following from the evil demon argument and the third meditation on the existence of God, how then error comes to play if God is in any case perfect to be infallible yet He (God) is responsible for our sound judgement? Error, the meditator believes comes from improper use of our intellect, i. e. in judging things we do not in truth know.Summation of the fourth meditation is thus Only an imperfect (less than perfectly good) being could practice deliberate deception. Therefore, God is no impostor. Since my faculty of judgment comes from God, I can make no mistake as long as I use it properly. But it is not an infinite faculty I make mistakes when I judge things that I dont really know. God also gave me free will, which is infinite and therefore extends beyond my finite intellect. This is why it is possible to deceive myself I am free to jump to conclusions or to invigorate as knowledge things that I dont know with absolute certainty.I therefore know now that if I know something with absolute certainty (clearly and distinctly), then I cannot be mistaken, because God is no deceiver. The correct way to proceed is to invalidate mistakes and limit my claims to knowledge to those things I know clearly and distinctly. 10 The Meditator also questions why a supremely good God would not create us with infinite being. In sum, we are given a heterogeneous on the answer, The Lord works in mysterious ways. The Meditator suggests that Gods motives are beyond our meager comprehension.While on our own, we may be seen as imperfect, we are only a small part of a much larger creation. We m ight think of a steering wheel on its own as rather useless and imperfect, but when we see it in the larger context of use of a car, we understand that it is perfectly designed to suit its purpose. 11 10 Anderson, 11 Summary of Philosophy. op. cit. Sparknote Editors, Sparknotes on Philosophy. op. cit. MEDITATION V OF THE ESSENCE OF strong THINGS AND, AGAIN OF GODTHAT HE EXISTS The Fifth Meditation opens with the Meditator turning his caution toward material objects.Rather than inquire into the things themselves, he inquires into her ideas regarding material things. He concludes that he can distinctly imagine extension, size, shape, position, and local motion, which is associated with duration. The Meditator has reasons here that a triangle must have all the properties he ascribes to it, because the triangle exists as an idea in his mind and he clearly and distinctly perceives all these properties. He then reasons by analogy that God exists as an idea in his mind and he clearly and distinctly perceives all of his qualities.One of these qualities is existence, so it follows from his clear and distinct perception that God must exist. If existence is the essence of God, then God would not be God if he did not exist, just as a triangle would not be a triangle if it were not three-sided. At the very least, then, the existence of God must be as certain as the properties of mathematical and geometrical objects since he can prove them in the same way. Does this mean that thinking of something means that it exists? According to the meditator If I conceive of a triangle, I must conceive of a condition whose angles equal two right angles.But it doesnt follow that the triangle must exist. But God is different. God, being perfect, is the one being to whom existence must belong. Thus, when I conceive of God, I must conceive of a being that exists. Because God, being perfect, is not a deceiver, I know that once I have perceived something clearly and distinctly to be tru e, it will remain true, even if later I forget the reasoning that led me to that conclusion. I could not have this certainty about anything if I did not know God. 12 The proof of Gods existence found here is a version of a proof that was popular among the Scholastic philosophers.Our idea of God is the idea of a perfect being, and one of the attributes of a perfect being would be existence, since it is more perfect to exist than not to exist. In Descartes formulation, existence is not just an attribute, but an essential property of Gods, so that God cannot be conceived of without existence. This proof, however, rests on the faulty assumption, first pointed out by Kant, that existence is a predicate or a property, like being red or being tall. In fact, exists is a very different kind of predicate than is red or is tall. The predicate exists does not 12Anderson, Summary of Philosophy. op. cit. modify an object so much as it modifies the world. If I say the red car exists, the prope rty of redness is something that modifies the car. On the other hand, exists does not modify the car so much as it says that the world is such that the car is in it. In that sense, exists is not a property of the car. 13 MEDITATION VI OF THE cosmos OF MATERIAL THINGS, AND OF THE REAL DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE MIND AND BODY OF MAN The meditator starts his sixth and last meditation by drawing a line surrounded by imagination and pure understanding.In the case of a triangle, he can perceive that a triangle is three-sided and derive all sorts of other properties using the understanding alone. He can also perceive these properties with the imagination, by picturing the triangle in his minds eye. However, the weaknesses of the imagination become clear when he considers a thousand-sided figure which the meditator calls a chiliogon. 14 It is very difficult to picture it in his minds eye, and more difficult still to differentiate that mental image from the mental image of a 999-sided figure. The pure understanding, however, dealing only in mathematical relations, can perceive all the properties of a thousand-sided figure just as easily as it can a triangle. The imagination cannot be an essential property of his mind, since the Meditator could still exist even if he could not imagine. Therefore, the imagination must rely on something other than the mind for its existence. The Meditator conjectures that the imagination is connected with the body, and thus allows the mind to picture corporeal or open objects.In understanding, the mind turns inward upon itself, and in imagining, the mind turns outward toward the body. The Meditator admits that this is only a strong conjecture, and not a definitive proof of the existence of body. The Meditator then turns to reflect on what he perceives by means of the senses. He perceives he has a body that exists in a world, and that this body can experience pleasure, pain, emotion, hunger, etc. , 13 14 Sparknote Editors, Sparknotes on Phi losophy. op. cit. Descartes, On Philosophy. op. cit. kobo file. nd can perceive other bodies with extension, shape, movement, hardness, heat, color, smell, taste, etc. He thinks it not unreasonable to suppose that these perceptions all come from some outside source. They come to him involuntarily, and they are so much more vivid than the perceptions he consciously creates in his own mind. It would be odd to suggest that he can involuntarily create perceptions so much more vivid than the ones he creates voluntarily. And if they come from without, it is only natural to suppose that the source of these sensory ideas in some way resemble the ideas themselves.From this point of view, it is very easy to convince oneself that all knowledge comes from without via the senses. 15 What Descartes understands by body is somewhat counter-intuitive and is closely linked to his physics, which is not made readily apparent in the Meditations. This section of commentary will depart a bit from the te xt it comments on in order to clarify some concepts of Cartesian physics. The entirety of Cartesian physics rests on the claim that extension is the primary attribute of body, and that nothing more is needed to explain or understand body. Extension means extended in space, and so a body is anything that occupies space. We should recall that Descartes was also a great mathematician, and invented both analytic geometry and the coordinate system that now bears his name. Descartes physics is highly mathematical, and we should understand bodies as anything that could be graphed in coordinate space. 16 ON THE MIND BODY DUALISM The Meditator muses that he has been puzzled as to why his mind seems particularly attached to one particular body, which he calls his own. Why does he feel pain and tickling in this body but not in any body external to it?And why should a tugging in the stomach of that body suggest to his mind that he should eat, since there is no obvious connection between the tug ging and the decision to eat? He concludes that he is inclined by nature to assume the things he does about his body and about the world external to it, since he accepts these assumptions prior to developing any arguments regarding them. The Meditator reasons that imagination and sensory perception are modes of thought. He could conceive of himself without imagination or sensory perception, so they are not essential to him, but 15 16Sparknote Editors, Sparknotes on Philosophy. op. cit. ibid imagination and sensory perception could not exist without a mind to contain them. Similarly, there are modes of extension that cannot exist without a body to contain them. The Meditator next considers those ideas about body that he perceives only confusedly and obscurely, hoping that his knowledge that God is not a deceiver will help him further. First, he reasons that he must have a body, as nature teaches that to him more vividly than anything. Further, mind and body are intermingled to form one unit.If the mind were in the body like a sailor in a ship, he would be able to perceive pains and hungers by purely intellectual understanding. Instead, he feels these sensations sharply and directly as if his mind itself were suffering. The confused modes of thinking that arise with respect to these sensations result precisely because the mind and body are intermingled and the mind cannot survey the social function disinterestedly. The Meditator argues that mind and body have nothing in common, so they must be two totally distinct substances.We could point out that Clark Kent and demigod are very dissimilar and are yet the same thing, and so argue by analogy that mind and body might be two very different ways of looking at the same thing. However, even the primary attributes of mind and body are different. Body is basically extended, whereas mind is non-extended and essentially thinking. Since the two are totally different, the Meditator concludes that he is only mind, and n ot body. This is a step beyond what is stated by the sum res cogitans in the Second Meditation, as there the Meditator asserts that he only knows that he is a thinking thing.This sharp distinction between mind and body is called mind-body dualism and has had tremendous impact on Western philosophy ever since. If sensory experience is in the mind and the bodies that cause our sensations are in the world, the question arises as to how the two can causally interact. What is the connection between mind and world? This has been a great concern in particular for the rationalist philosophers that followed DescartesMalebranche, Spinoza, and Leibniz being the most importantas well as for philosophy of mind in general ever since. 17 17 ibid. CONCLUSIONThe mind and the body if held as totally distinct from each other leaves no room for interaction. The mind becomes a separate entity as well as the body. The body is extended and occupies space, it is measureable, discernible and degenarates he nce the body is subject area. The mind however is a direct opposite. It cannot be measured, it is not visible and does not occupy space. Also, since the body is extended in three dimensional space, it can be divided into specific parts, the mind however does not occupy space and cannot be divided. The nature of the body according to Descartes was that, dissimilar the mind it was divisible. 8 There is a great difference between mind and body, inasmuch as body is by nature always divisible, and the mind is entirely indivisible. 19 How then an immaterial mind (that Descartes denied had a post in space) moves a physical body that does, how a body consisting of space-occupying matter influence an immaterial mind remains a philosophical problem, I dare say, beyond any discuss in the philosophy of mind, a metaphysical problem that the whole discipline of philosophy up till date is yet to find a solution to. 18 Rene Descartes. n. p. 2002. ttp//www. renedescartes. com/attempt/rene_descar tes_essay_001. htm (accessed April 13,2013). 19 ibid. Further Readings Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body Rene Descartes Copyright 20102015 All rights reserved. Jonathan Bennett Foundationalism, Epistemic Principles, and the Cartesian distribute James Van Cleve The Philosophical Review Vol. 88, No. 1 (Jan. , 1979), pp. 55-91 produce by Duke University Press Article Stable URL http//www. jstor. org/stable/2184779