Saturday, February 23, 2019
What Are the Main Causes of Food Insecurity in the World Today?
What are the main ingests of sustenance in security department in the world today? Outline and evaluate 2 or 3 possible stems to fare hazard problems Currently, millions of slew across the globe anguish from under- feed and starve. In 2007, the UN (United Nations) estimated that there are approximately 850 million people who convey undernourishment in the world today. It also reported that 799 million malnourish people live in exploitation countries, most of which are on the Afri bathroom and Asiatic continents.Reportedly, the study contribution to this international issue has been diet peril (FAO, 2008, p. 8). It affects people ranging from individual to national level with various engenders, curiously neglect of cultivation and native casualty in developing countries (FAO, 2005, no pageboy given). This essay will identify two main serves of forage insecurity which have been state above and also it will enlist and evaluate two possible solutions to pabulum insecurity problems up cultivation and humanitarian support dust. It is necessary to define the meaning of food security before its causes deal be considered.Commonly, the concept of food insecurity is the demesne of being unable to have both corporal and economic irritate to enough and nutritious food (WHO, 2008). Socially, people who are in this separate often cannot maintain household food supplies and suffer from under nutrition (FAO, 2005). This situation prevails when nations lack sustainable access to sufficient, safe and, nutritious food for productive and health living (WHO, 2008). consort to an online journal by Getachew (2008, no page given), neglect of agriculture has been ascribed as the major cause of food insecurity from short-terminus shocks.Other search illustrates that innate disasters can have significant repairs on food security from long-term shocks (FAO, 2005). Millions of people around the world are affected on food insecurity by various issues e specially downgrading agriculture and natural disaster. Having outlined the exposition of food security, it is now possible to consider the main causes of food insecurity. thither are various factors that contribute to food insecurity in opposite parts of the world. First, neglect of agriculture especially in developing countries is such(prenominal) a key ause of chronic food insecurity (Makoni, 2010, no page given).According to Khasnobis (2009, p230), the come of foreign aid allocated to farming(a) activities has decreased from 19 per cent in 1980 to 4. 5 per cent in 2009. Nevertheless, only a few organizations have attained the 2003 Maputo Declaration which required each(prenominal) nation to allocate 10 per cent of its budget to agriculture. It can be said that this has consequently led to poor infrastructure, along with poor food-storage facilities, which bump such nations in suffering food shortage in oddball of crop failure.Indeed, food insecurity is likely to be spe ctacularer in areas with lower agricultural knowledge (USDA, 2010, no page given). According to an on-line article by Makoni (2010, no page given), 80 percent of creation in Africa depend on agriculture and people become to a long extent poor because of low productivity and consequently, 30 percent suffer from hunger daily. Therefore, it could be argued that this evidence illustrates that chronic neglect of agriculture can withdraw to low productivity, poverty, and eventually chronic food insecurity.Secondly, natural disasters can be considered as another(prenominal) major cause of food insecurity. According to an on-line article in FAO (2008, no page given), in the past two decades, the flesh of emergent onset natural disasters including floods, hurricanes and earthquakes has increased dramatically from 14 per cent in the 1980s to 27 per cent since 2000. In the resolving power of this, the number of food insecurity has increased sharply during the same menses (FAO, 2008, no page given). Food security is affected by natural disasters through its advert on local and national food systems.Recently, the impact of natural disasters has created a fall in agricultural product prices and and then this current price led to inconvenient conditions for farmers in developing countries (FAO, 2002, no page given). Under the circumstance, producers use less m 1y for advances on the reputation of farming land such as fertilizers and manure which are ordinarily not affordable by poor farmers (FAO, 2002, no page given). thusly it causes a bad effect on food production in developing countries and eventually food insecurity.Moreover, when natural disasters occur, poor households suffer great economic losses, resulting in deepening their poverty further. These losses can throttle them in food insecurity. As a result, it seems that natural disasters are peerless of the causes of food insecurity. Now, the remainder of this essay will discuss solutions for the two ca uses of food insecurity which have been argued above. In fix up to crystallize food insecurity problems, improving agriculture can be one of the solutions. International donors and the government in developing countries had neglected agriculture for a long current and it causes food insecurity.In 2008, the World Bank, in its annual development report, admitted that greater investment in agriculture is requisite to solve food insecurity problems (Makoni, 2010, no page given). Investment in agriculture can found the governments to ensure that farm materials and equipment are available to farmers at fair prices. Moreover, government is also able to ensure that farmers in the rural areas have comfortable and convenient access to the necessary farming requirements (FAO, 2008, no page given). This can be achieved by setting up stores for supplying these materials and equipment in every region at strategic places (Khasnobis, 2009, p231).Thus, it can be said that improving agricultu re including investment for the availability of materials and equipment can allow people to embark high productivity and it leads to solve food insecurity problems. However, it requires an enormous amount of investment in these materials and equipment and so it is not a constructive solution if the developing countries assets are in a bad shape. Furthermore, it is essential to underwrite that humour change problems still affect on agriculture melioratement in developing countries even the governments invest in these materials and equipment.Recently, impact of clime change on food production in developing countries has been change magnitude and at this rate, its impact will be double by 2060 (FAO, 1996, no page given). This means that it is also necessary to invest in agriculture to increase the resilience of present food production systems referable to climate change problems. For example, investment in drip systems and sprinklers enables farmers to produce more food with les s water (Postel, 2001, no page given). However, it is a long term solution and a king-sized amount of funds is needed to oblation these systems to every farmer.It could be said that investment in agricultural materials and equipment is one of the solutions to solve the food insecurity problems, and it should be concerned that investment to improve the food production systems is also needed because of climatic changes. However, a large amount of funds and time is needed for these solutions so, it can be said that these solutions are not so practical for food insecurity problems. Secondly, improving humanitarian aid system for natural disasters can be another solution for food insecurity due to the fact that natural disasters cause food insecurity.When natural disasters happen in developing countries, it causes the direct physical reparation on crops and the indirect impacts especially, loss of potential production due to deteriorated the nature of farming land, and increased produ ctions cost (UN, 2008). Thus, when natural disasters especially sudden onset disasters happen, the spry humanitarian aid, particularly medical support, relief supplies and food aid for disaster refugees is needed as it causes food insecurity eventually.According to an on-line article in Oxfam International (2009, no page given), the number of people affected by national disasters will increase by 54 per cent to 375 million people in the next fivesome years. However, the aid response is fickle, too little and not good enough. oneness of the reasons for this is political preferences make aid unfair (Oxfam, 2009, no page given). For example, in 2004, while an average of only $23 was spent for each dupe of the crisis in Chad, an average of $1,241 was spent per person affected by the Asian tsunami (Oxfam, 2009, no page given).Therefore, it is essential to improve the immediate aid system promptly without political preferences so that it is possible to prevent the agricultural injures from spreading. As it is mentioned earlier, backward aid for natural disasters is important to prevent agricultural damages. Moreover, proactive aid is also needed to prepare for disasters to decrease the damage from it (Oxfam, 2009, no page given). Investment for researching data on past natural disasters can be one of the examples. It is an effective but not tripping solution without the help of national governments.The United Nations should propose some ideas for approach of proactive aid. It is a solution with long-term effects which reduce the impact of natural disasters and mitigate food insecurity. Food insecurity is highly babelike on agricultural production and is caused by natural disasters. Therefore, both an immediate aid and a proactive aid for disasters are needed to solve food insecurity problems. It is necessary that national governments help to improve these aid systems. In conclusion, this essay has identified that neglect of agriculture and natural disaster ar e the main causes of food insecurity today.Both of these causes lead to great economic losses, poverty and eventually food insecurity in developing countries. These causes are not directly related to food insecurity. However, they indirectly cause the major peoples food insecurity problems. In order to solve food insecurity problems, improving agriculture by investing for agricultural materials and present food production systems could be one of the major solutions. Another solution for food insecurity is improving immediate and proactive aid systems. Thus, it could be argued that both long-term and short-term solutions are needed for food insecurity problems.