Sunday, February 24, 2019
Technology already tracks or monitors animal(prenominal)s, people, vehicles and other objects to quench the need for constant human observation. These technologies need to be sm both, economical and lay waste to a borderline amount of power. Bluetooth applied cognition is creationness utilize extensively in advance-held constructions and wireless computing Pico Communications beca persona of its characteristics mentioned higher up. This invent aims to use Bluetooth engineering science to monitor and track animals in the wild. More specifically, this project deals with the off-loading of info from a device situated on an animal.The aim of this literature survey is to analyze the Bluetooth technology, focusing on routing in Bluetooth interlocks, as well as accepted animal track and supervise technologies. Current technologies used in tracking and monitoring Many of these projects overhear use of the Global Positioning outline (GPS), Global System for Mobile (GSM) or directional radio contagious disease tracking. One of them is described in Save the Elephants GSM tracking project, sponsored by Safari. com in Kenya, which makes use of the GPS trunk to gather muddleal information of tags placed on elephants Douglas-Hamilton, I. t al (February 2004). These tags to a fault have GSM modules that bear the locational info to be downloaded periodically. object lensives of this project be to develop small tags that have a long electric battery life, be ratty and light. Before the safari. com project, haemorrhagic fever (Very High Frequency) radio was used to download the GPS data from the animals about every 3 months. Sending data using VHF requires a large amount of power expending, indeed downloads were only done every three months. GSM technology lowers this power consumption enabling more regular data retrieval.Data, such as that elephants normally travel about 10km a day that can laissez extend toer 30km or more, was collected usin g this technology. The Kenya wildlife service use this knowledge to fancy things like human-animal interaction and fence positioning. A company called Digital tumble has developed a chip that is embedded into animals Hostetter, J (April 2003). While these chips do not produce locational information, they enable a person to electronically happen upon an animal as well as get its current torso temperature. The company is looking at using these bio chips to track an animals blood stuff and hormonal changes Hostetter, J (April 2003).The bio chips are very small and light but data can only be collected with a hand held reader which provides the chip with power via magnetic induction, similar to RFID technology. Most animal tracking projects are interested in the movements of animals. We are interested in the interaction of animals and possibly data concerning individual animals using the technology being developed by Digital Angle. Because we aim to only use Bluetooth technology (an d not GPS), an animals location could be roughly plotted by tagging material positions, for example watering holes and trees.The tracking and monitoring systems above use VHF or GSM technologies to download data from animals. We want to look at the feasibleness of using Bluetooth networks to download this data. Bluetooth is suited to this application because it is small, light and uses a minimal amount of power, whereas GSM and GPS devices have a short battery life and are large and heavy. In an application that does not involve animals, Ron Alterovitz from the computer science department at Caltech University in California has done a look project involving message routing over a Bluetooth scatternet. Alterovitz, R (2001) His aim was to make wireless-enabled vehicles communicate darn in motion. The ad-hoc properties of piconets and scatternets enable the vehicles to pass messages betwixt them date they are in motion. The vehicles were linked up to a positioning system and set to run around in a chiliad1000 cm room. each(prenominal) vehicle was able to transmit up to a distance of 250cm. The vehicles were left to move around the room randomly while the positioning system and vehicles passed messages amongst each other to stop them crashing.The routing tables, used to pass messages, were only allowed to be updated at set intervals. It was rear that message packets were befuddled if the speed of the vehicles was increased while the routing interval was kept the same Alterovitz, R (June 2001). Although Bluetooth has been used for tracking small autonomous vehicles, thither is no read of the use of this technology to track animals. However, wireless devices, for example Bluetooth enabled cell phones, could be used to track human beings. This raises ethical and privacy issues Potter, B (November 2003).Bluetooth as the Underlying Technology The above technologies aim to provide a subject matter of tracking or message-passing through the use of devices that are physically small, use minimal amounts of power and support an ad-hoc type of communication. Bluetooth supports realistic data order of up to 600Kbps and claims to make a battery last from 50% to ccc% longer than other wireless technologies PicoCommunications, (November 2002). There are two configurationes of Bluetooth device. The score 2 radio allows a range of ten meters while class 1 radios allow for transmission over 100 meters.Bluetooth operates in the license-free 2. 4GHz great deal making use of frequency hopping at a rate of 1600 hop per second. Although Bluetooth has limitations in its transfer speed and communication distance, its market share is rise while 802. 11 (WiFi) has slowed down in its growth Dursch, A. et all (December 2003). The go interest in Bluetooth will increase production, causing the already cheap technology to become easily obtainable. The Bluetooth heap Illustration 1The Bluetooth Stack Each Bluetooth packet has a fixed format that starts wit h a 72-bit access code.This is followed by a 54-bit header containing wrongdoing correction, retransmission and instruction information. Finally the packet contains a payload of 0 to 2745 bits. Three methods, Forward Error Correction (FEC), instinctive Repeated Request (ARQ) and Cyclic Redundancy Checks (CRC) are used for error correction during Bluetooth communication Forum Nokia (April 2003). This project is interested in the following Bluetooth stack layers The Link Manager Protocol (LPM) layer is responsible for setting up the links between Bluetooth devices and deals with master/ knuckle down switching, low power modes, quantify offsets and packet size negotiation.This layer, although not critical to this project, also handles the substitution of corroboration and encryption information. The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) enables multiplexing of the protocols above it by segmenting and reassembling packets Pico Communications inc. The Service Discove ry Protocol (SDP) enables Bluetooth devices to advertise and clutch services. SDP passes bitmasks, representing advertised services, to all backbone nodes. This allows other devices to discover the type and location of a service on a Bluetooth network quickly Nordbotten, N, A. et al (2004).RFCOMM is a serial port emulation protocol enabling RS232 control and data signaling over Bluetooth. It allows services such as the blot to Point Protocol (PPP) to be used over Bluetooth. IP is the timeworn protocol used on the Internet Pico Communications inc. Bluetooth profiles Bluetooth profiles describe the primary(prenominal) usage models of Bluetooth. The current Bluetooth specification contains four general profiles. Forum Nokia (April 2003) The Generic gateway visibility defines the discovery of other Bluetooth devices, link management and connectivity, security levels and viridity format requirements for user interfaces.All Bluetooth devices have to support this profile and all othe r profiles require and use it. The Service Discovery Application Profile defines procedures for a Bluetooth application to discover services advertised by another(prenominal) Bluetooth device, and should be followed should this project make use of services during implementation. The Serial style Profile defines the Bluetooth requirements for setting up emulated serial cable connections. This profile is also an option should this project transfer data over RS232 connections.The Generic Object Exchange Profile is used by applications that need object exchange capabilities. This profile is also an option should we want to model our data as objects and pass these objects from device to device and then finally to a data sink Forum Nokia (April 2003). Ad-Hoc Bluetooth Networks Bluetooth enabled devices form ad-hoc networks when they come into contact with one another. These networks are construct using scatternet and piconet formation algorithms as described by Law, C. et al (2001). am idst 1 and 7 devices can form a piconet.One device is designated to be the master. This decision is made by each device generating a random number determining whether the device will assume to be the master and seek buckle downs or assume to be a striver and scan for the master. Because only 7 nodes are allowed to participate in a piconet, scatternets are formed by linking many a(prenominal) piconets together via share slave nodes. The number of piconets to which a device belongs is termed its degree. A master node in a piconet may only have a degree of one, kernel a master node may not be shared between two piconets.The shared slaves are time multiplexed between the piconets to which it belongs and data sent between the piconets must be sent via the shared slave Law, C. et al, (2001). The time it takes for data to be passed through a shared slave is dependent on the manner in which the shared slave switches between piconets. Shared slaves need to have timed rendezvous points w ith piconet masters in order to exchange data Misic, J. et al (February 2004). The masters and shared slaves are collectively referred to as back bone nodes of the formed scatternet.The piconet and scatternet formation algorithms allow nodes to move and migrate between piconets and allow small piconets to be incorporated Law, C. et al (2001). These ad-hoc properties of piconets and scatternets enable data to be exchanged between many Bluetooth devices while those devices are moving between piconets within a scatternet, efficaciously enabling the devices to physically move around while data is being exchanged amongst them. Conclusion This literature search has found no state that Bluetooth has been used to track or monitor animals in the wild.It has however found many applications where Bluetooth networks have been used for mobile devices needing to exchange data. The literature shows that there is a need for small, inexpensive animal tracking devices that consume a minimal amount of power. It is also shown that Bluetooth is already being used for hold and mobile computing applications for these same reasons. Our aim is to build upon the device and network technologies surveyed in this paper, to determine the feasibility of a Bluetooth-based animal tracking and monitoring system, which has a low degree of human probe effect.