Thursday, April 4, 2019

How Do Water Boilers Work Environmental Sciences Essay

How Do Water Boilers Work environmental Sciences EssayA kettle is a closed vessel in which pissing or new(prenominal) liquid is kindleed in order to generate move or vaporisation which is accordingly utilize for another(prenominal) external processes. Water is a useful and cheap medium for transferring set off to a process. When water is boiled into steam clean, its volume increases about 1600 times, generating a force that is very explosive. This idler be achieved by flame of wood, natural gas, coal or oil. Electric steam steam kettledrums on the other hand use electric resistance to produce the required heat. The chemical energy from any of these external elicit sources is converted into heat which is then transferred to the water through radiation which is the transfer of heat from a zesty body to a inhuman body without a conveying medium, conduction which involves the transfer of heat by actual physical hit and by convection, the transfer of heat by a conveyin g medium manage air or water (EuropeanCommission, 2006).Since the development of the first kettledrums in the 18th century, boilers have evolved so as to increase their talent and low-cost design as well as pay more attention to air pollutant emissions like carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride. These types of emissions depend on the type of give notice use and the load factor of the boiler. The position of a boiler is determined by the required steam mass flow rate, temperature and pressure. The tote up of insert fuel required depends on the fuel energy content and on the overall energy efficiency. A boilers performance is characterized by its steam pressure and temperature. Saturated steam is steam at boiling temperature for a given pressure, which is what most boilers produce and make use of. If more heat is supplied and the steam pressure rises to a higher place the saturation temperature at a given pressure, then the steam becomes superheated steam. This kind of steam t hough at a higher temperature, can go downwards the efficiency of the steam generating plant. If more heat is supplied to the superheated steam, it becomes supercritical steam which can be apply in power generation (USEPA, 2004).A closed boiler is iodin in which all the steam generated is returned to the vessel in form of water and is reused while an open boiler is one that does not return water to the original vessel.The boiler system comprises of three major separate which are the feed water system, the steam system and the fuel system. The feed system supplies water to the boiler and regulates it to meet the systems demands. The steam system is responsible for collection and control of the steam produced in the boiler. This system is set and checked using pressure gauges and is directed to the point of use through an in force(p) steaming system. The fuel system includes all the equipment used to generate the required heat which is dependent on the type of fuel used in the system (Hartford, 1911).There are three basic types of boilers which are used for industrial uses. These are the fire tobacco pipe, the water render and the fire box boilers. In the fire tube boilers, heat passes through the tubes which are surrounded by the water being heated. These tubes are arranged in banks so that the heat produced can pass through the vessel many times before escaping. Fire tube boilers are relatively grim in size compared to the other type of boilers.In water tube boilers, heat is made to pass through the tubes which contain the water. These tubes are then interconnected to a steam outlet for distribution to the plant system. These types of boilers are the most commonly used because they are queen-sizedr in size and can therefore withstand greater pressures and temperatures, though their initial and maintenance costs are higher.In a fire box boiler, the hot gases from the fire box which is the space where the fuel is ruin are channeled into the tubes w here they heat the water.Water is supplied to the boiler from the boiler feed water plant also know as the demineralizer plant. The demineralizer removes all salts present in the water by removal of hydrogen ions which are replaced with sulphuric acid. This water should be free of any foreign materials that could cause harm to the boiler and also decrease its performance. Some of these harmful substances include oxygen, positively charged ions of calcium, aluminum, sodium and zinc. There are also other negatively charged ions like carbonates, bicarbonates, silica and fluorides which could harm the boiler efficiency. The removal of oxygen is usually through with(p) in the de-aerator located after the ion exchanger.The de-aeration of the condensate returning from the process ensures that the water is free of oxygen bubbles that whitethorn inhibit heat transfer. In de-aeration, the dissolved gases are removed by preheating the feed water before it is allowed to enter the boiler. The r emoval of these gases is very important to the boiler equipment longevity as well as asylum of operation. De-aeration can be through with(p) by chemical de-aeration, mechanical de-aeration or both. The chemical treatment is used to remove harmful substances that could cause build up in the heat transfer equipment. The economizer is used to preheat the water entering the boiler. This helps reduce fuel cost making the boiler more efficient (Shields, 1961).The water vessel in a boiler is connected to the heat source by metallic element rods which heat the water and convert it to steam. The steam is allowed to collect in the covered stadium before exiting the boiler. The function of the dome is to force the steam to become highly condensed in order for it to exit the boiler with a volumed amount of pressure. A boiler also contains a drain which removes impurities from the water vessel and a chimney to allow heat to escape once it has passed the water vessel. It is vital for all boi lers to have safety valves in order to allow excess steam to be released in order to prevent explosions.The heart of a boiler is a pressure vessel which is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure. This pressure vessel is usually made of steel or wrought iron. This pressure is obtained from an substantiating source or from the application of heat from a direct or indirect source. If not powerful maintained, boilers can be a source of serious injuries and can lead to huge losses in form of property destruction. Thin and brittle metals that make up some parts of the boiler could transportation or poorly welded seams could open up leading to violent eruptions of the pressurized steam. Collapsed boiler tubes could also spray the hot steam they contain into the air injuring the around (Reeves, 2001).Even with the best pretreatment programs, boiler feed water oft contain some degree of impurities which normally accumulate in the boiler. The increasing accumul ation of dissolved solids may lead to carry over of boiler water into the steam which may cause damage to the piping system as well as the process equipment. These suspended solids could also lead to the formation of grievous bodily harm which will lead to a reduction of the boiler efficiency as well as it s heat transfer capability.In order to avoid these problems, water should often be discharged from the boiler in order to control the concentrations of the suspended and dissolved solids in the boiler. Discharging of the surface water is usually done in order to get rid of the dissolved solids while the discharging of bottom water is done in order to remove the sludge from the bottom of the boiler.Boiler botch down i.e. discharge of water from the boiler is a very important aspect of the boiler maintenance. Lack of proper blow down can lead to increase fuel consumption, extra chemical treatments for the boiler as well as increased heat loss. Also, since the blow down water has the same temperature as the boiler water, it can be reused in the boiler operations once removed. However, excessive blow down can lead to wastage of water, energy and treatment.The both major types of boiler blow downs are intermittent and continuous blow down. Intermittent blow down is done by manually fitting a valve at the bottom of the boiler which is removes the unwanted parameters. It requires large short-term increases in the amount of feed water put into the boiler which leads to a substantial amount of heat energy being lost. Alternatively, continuous blow down involves the steady and constant dispatch of small stream of concentrated boiling water being replaced with steady and constant inflow of feed water.The divers(a) energy efficiency opportunities in a boiler system can be related to combustion, heat transfer, water quality, avoidable losses and blow down. To maximize a boilers efficiency, the stack temperature should be designed to be as low as possible. Neverthele ss, it should not be very low such that water vapor in the exhaust condenses on the stack walls. Automatic blow down controls that sense and respond to the boiler water conductivity and pH should be installed in order to reduce uncontrolled continuous blow down. In oil and coal fired boilers, soot should be removed as it acts as an nonconductor against heat transfer.

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