Friday, June 7, 2019
Indian & European Relations in the 1600s Essay Example for Free
Indian European Relations in the 1600s EssaySpain in conjugation America1560s Spanish give up search for Indian gold. Focus on defending their empire from English (who were plundering treasure ships and Caribbean ports) and cut Protestants (who began to decide in Florida though the Spanish had already claimed the land). Spanish establish fort at St. Augustine, Florida (1565) to protect route of the treasure fleet. They also massacre French Protestants. Raids by congenital Americans wipe out military outposts and religious missions. 1573 The Comprehensive Order for innovative Discoveries says that missionaries, not conquistadors, have to pacify the land. Franciscan friars set up missions in Nuevo Mxico (New Mexico) and attack Native Americans. Native Americans do forced labor. 1680 Pop leads revolt, kills 400 Spaniards and forces pillowing 1500 to flee to El Paso, and destroys Spanish missions (Pueblo Revolt of 1680). Spaniards return, Native Americans thread a deal that lets them practice their own religion and end forced labor, but they have to help the Spaniards. payoff Spanish fail to convert Native Americans, Santa Fe left vulnerable. In Florida, raids by English leave St. Augustine vulnerable.French in North America1608 First permanent settlement, Quebec, is founded1662 King Louis XIV turns New France into a royal colony, tries to get people to move there. Cannot get enough people. New France becomes an area for trading furs. Rise of the Iroquois French introduce diseases that kill legion(predicate) Indians. Indians get guns from fur trade, which leads to war. The Five Iroquois Nations come out on top, have control of the fur trade in Quebec (with the French) and New Amsterdam (with the Dutch). French Jesuits puree to win Indian converts. They do not exploit the Indians, and they come to understand their culture. They eventually win converts by adapting Christianity to the needs of the Indians. Outcome Despite efforts of the Jesuits, French fur trade causes devastation through disease and loss of Indian culture. Iroquois warriors kill many, though they too are harmed French burned their villages and killed many warriors in 1666 and over again in 1690.Dutch in North AmericaDutch set up a fur-trading post (Fort Orange) along the Hudson River. West India Company has monopoly on the fur. Later, Dutch founded New Amsterdam and made it the capital of New Netherland. Colony didnt thrive small population made it vulnerable. Fort Orange succeeds as a peaceful and successful fur-trading post. Dutch near New Amsterdam are more aggressive towards Indians. 1640 war. After the war, West India Company ignores New Netherland, focuses on knuckle down trade. 1664 Dutch fall under control of the English under the Duke of York 1673 Dutch assault momentarily recaptures the colonyEdmund Andros takes control, in retaliation imposes English law and demands allegiance. Outcome Dutch, who had once been dominant, are now a subject people.Chap ter 6 Making War and Republican Governments (1776-1789)Patriots demand that colonists join Loyalist or Patriot stead cannot stay neutral. Patriots have advantage to get supporters b/c they control local governments. Patriots make army, and Patriots encouraged people to support the army by taking a more active reference in govt. Character of politics changes when common people exert influence democratic army launches age of republican revolution.Americans forced to retreat, Britain pushed back Americans into PA. When winter comes, Britain halts their crusade and Patriots catch them off guard, winning small victories.Armies and StrategiesHowe doesnt want to destroy Americans, just wants them to surrender and compromise. Howe cannot win decisive victory, Washington avoids defeat. Washingtons handicaps Fights only defensively, has unfit recruits, Radical Whig Patriots believe army is threat to liberty.American Victory at SaratogaBritains mark isolate New EnglandNorths colonial se cretary Germains externalise attack Albany from 3 sides. Burgoyne, St. Leger, and Howe will attack. Howes different plan attack Philadelphia (home of Continental Congress), end rebellion w/ single victory. Howe uses his plan slowly. Continental Congress flees to PAs interior. Howes slow attack immediately leads to defeat of Burgoynes army. Burgoynes actions fights, then stalls. Americans led by General Gates slows Burgoynes progress. Burgoynes army stuck in Saratoga, NY. Beaten back maculation trying to raid VT. Has troops w/drawn to help Howe. Meanwhile, Gates forces grow. October 1777 Burgoyne forced to surrender. Turning point of the war.Social and Financial PerilsBritish naval shut off causes disruption in New England fishing industry, and British occupation causes decrease in domestic trade and manufacturing. People move out, decrease in population. Chesapeake colonies break off cuts tobacco exports. Short supply of goods = army starts getting supplies from the people. Wom en and Household ProductionWomen1 Increase output of homespuns2 Participate in farmworkDespite this, goods remain scarce and prices rise. War also created deprivation, displacement, and death. War divides communities b/c of Patriots violence.Financial CrisisState govts are weak, dont create new taxes. Creation of rescript money, Continental Congress and colonies economies crumble.Valley ForgeStarvation and sickness for Americans during the winter in Valley Forge, but Baron von Steuben raises morale. Continental army becomes tougher and better disciplined.The passage to Victory, 1778-17831778 Continental Congress allies w/ France. alignment gives Continental Congress money, supplies, and later troops. Also confronts Britain w/ inter subject field war that challenges domination of Atlantic.The French AllianceAlliance starts w/ secret loan to colonies to avenge Frances loss of Canada to Britain. Later turns into a formal adhesiveness.Negotiating the TreatyAmerican diplomats ensure treaty specifies that French support cannot end until the United States is independent. Alliance revives colonies and Continental Congress.The British ResponseWar is becoming unpopular in Britain. Some British support Americans and campaign for domestic reforms. George III initially committed to crushing rebellion, but after British defeat at Saratoga changes his mind. Tries to prevent American and French alliance (Parliament repeals Tea Act, Prohibitory acts, and renounces right to tax colonies).War in the SouthFrench and Spanish (who joined the war against Britain in 1779) agendas cause British to change over focus of the war to the South.Britains Southern StrategyBritish plan1 Focus on winning tobacco and rice colonies (VA, Carolinas, GA) then affirm on local Loyalists to hold them 2 Exploit racial divisions between slaves and Patriot owners get slaves to flee At first, British are winning. But tide turns. Dutch join fight against British. France dispatches troops to AmericaP artisan Warfare in the CarolinasGeneral Green fights in Carolinas. Fighting goes back and forth. Britain is weakened by this war of attrition, and British decide to give up Carolinas to Greene and focus on VA instead.Benedict Arnold and Conflicting LoyaltiesBenedict Arnold switched from American side to British side. Fights for George III in VA.Britain DefeatedWashington and the French fleet surround Cornwallis and his troops on land. Cornwallis is outnumbered, cannot escape by sea. October 1781 Cornwallis surrenders in YorktownThe Patriot AdvantageWhy the Americans win the war1 Some British mistakes2 Widespread Patriots in America3 Many Americans support war through taxes and joining the militia4 Patriots led by experienced politicians5 George WashingtonAmericans refuse to support British army, refuse to accept occupation by Loyalist forces, and subscribe the inflation caused by the war.Diplomatic TriumphPeace talks begin in 1782, but French and Spanish stall b/c they chill out hope for major naval victory or territorial conquest. Ignoring Treaty of Alliance, Americans sign a separate peace w/ the British. September 1783 Treaty of Paris. bang-up Britain recognizes independence of the colonies.Britain gets1 Canada 2 Rights for merchants to pursue legal claims for prewar debts 3 Americans will encourage state legislatures to return confiscated lieu to Loyalists and grant them citizenship America gets1 Great Lakes and land east of the Mississippi River2 Fishing rights3 Freedom of navigation on the Mississippi4 British cannot seize property like slaves1783 Treaty of Versailles Britain makes peace w/ France and SpainChapter 10 Creating Republican Institutions, 1776 1787The State Constitutions How Much Democracy?Many states had written state constitutions when the Continental Congress urged them to in 1776.The Rise of Popular Politics, 1820-1829Expansion of the franchise = most democratic symbol of the Democratic Revolution. Gives ordinary men more power th an anywhere else in the world.The declivity of the Notables and the Rise of PartiesAmerican Revolution weakened the deferential society, but didnt overthrow it. Wealthy notables still dominated the political system at first. 1810 fence to expand suffrage began. State legislatures grant broader voting rights to diffuse criticism and deter migration to the west. The new voters refused to support politicians that flaunted their high social status. Democratic politics is corrupt.Martin avant-garde Buren1 Created political machine, the Albany Regency. 2 Patronage gives government jobs to ships company members in return for their loyalty. (Spoils system) 3 Insists on party discipline, requires elected officials to follow dictates of the party caucus.The Election of 1824Five candidates, all Republicans, campaigned for presidency. Jackson received most popular votes, but Adams won because ashes made a corrupt bargain with Adams, where Clay would vote Adams into presidency if he would b ecome secretary of state.Presidency of John Quincy Adams the last notable presidentSupports American System (protective tariffs, national bank, subsidized ingrained improvements) Resistance to the American System southerners oppose protective tariffs because they raised the price of manufactures, and smallholders feared powerful banks that could force them into bankruptcy. Politicians oppose American System on constitutional understanding (for example, saying that the national governments income couldnt fund state improvement projects because those projects were the responsibility of the states). Southerners were also angry about the Tariff of 1828, which raised duties on raw materials and textiles. Southerners also dislike Adamss pro-Indian policy.Jacksonian Impact1 Expanded potential authority of President by identifying it with the voice of the people. 2 Upheld national authority by threatening use of military force, laying foundation for Lincolns later defense of the Union. 3 Reinvigorated Jeffersonian impost of limited central government by undermining American System of national banking, protective tariffs, and internal improvements. 4 Undermined constitutional jurisprudence of marshal by appointing Taney as Marshalls successor. Taney partially reversed nationalist and property-rights decisions of Marshall. Example In the case Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co. (1837), Taney says that a charter doesnt needfully bestow a monopoly, and a legislature could charter competition (in this case, a competing bridge co.) to help the public.This decision directly challenges what Marshall said in the Dartmouth College v. Woodward case, where Marshall stresses the binding nature of a contract by saying that a state cannot invalidate a contract. Other cases that place limits on Marshalls nationalistic interpretations by enhancing role of state governments Mayor of New York v. Miln (1837) New York state can use police power to inspect health of immigrants . Briscoe v. patois of Kentucky (1837) When it issues currency, a bank owned by the Kentucky doesnt violate the provision of the Constitution that prohibits states from issuing bills of credit. As a result of the Taney Courts decisions, the role of state governments in commerce was greatly enhanced. 5 States write new constitutions that extend democracy, many of which introduce classical liberalism (laissez-faire). Laissez-faire says the government role in the economy should be limited.